Ethical Principles of Journalism

Ethical Codes Database

Mapping the core principles

Explore the core journalistic ethical principles through this interactive three-level tree.


  Being fair
  Abuse of power
  Confidentiality
  Dignity
  Anonymization
  Decency
  Definition of public person
  Freedom of expression versus other human rights
  Making accusations
  People who passed away
  Personal information
  Pictures in non-public places
  Pictures in public places
  Principle of no harm
  Privacy (and the public interest)
  Protecting people's personal information
  Protection of the good name of a person
  Sensationalism
  Discrimination and racism
  Fairness in gathering information
  Collecting information in hospitals
  Deceit and undercover methods
  Gathering information in public space
  Harassment of people by journalists
  Making recordings
  Payment of sources
  Stating journalistic intention
  Fairness towards interviewees
  Honoring agreements
  Embargoes
  Exclusivity contracts
  Pre-publication review
  Secrecy agreements
  Addictions and substance abuse
  Children
  Health reporting
  Interviewees are coauthor of publication
  Journalists should not create events themselves
  Letting source check their statements
  Offering material to other media outlets for money
  Right of reply
  Stolen information
  Vulnerable people and sensitive topics
  Juvenile criminals
  Offensive content
  People unfamiliar with the press
  People with intellectual disabilities
  Reporting on crime
  Family drama
  Memoirs of criminals
  Police and magistrates
  Presumption of innocence
  Reporting on Court and legal proceedings
  Suspects and convicted people
  Victims of crimes, accidents, or disasters
  Reporting on politics
  Reporting on suicide
  Supernatural or paranormal phenomena
  Violence and war
  Internet-specific guidelines
  Behaviour of editorial staff on social media
  Bloggers and digital media are included in self-regulation
  Forums aimed at children
  Hyperlinks
  Information from social media
  Moderation of comments
  Online comments
  Separation between public and editorial content on website
  Sharing content from third party via social media
  Journalism in society
  Accountability
  Being accountable
  Editors have the ultimate responsibility
  Encourage debate around media ethics
  Journalist has personal responsibility for information
  Liability after publication
  Media should have an own internal Code of Ethics
  News agency (news agencies)
  Responsible editor
  Workings and procedures of the Media Council
  Being good colleagues
  Duties of editorial board
  Entertainment
  Freedom WITHIN media
  Helping people who are in danger
  Integrity
  Journalists must possess specialized knowledge and skills
  Journalists must undergo professional training
  Language
  Media is responsible for user generated content
  Media provide sufficient information to contact them
  News blackouts
  Obligations of the press
  Observation of political and economic power
  Public interest is higher than all other considerations
  Scrutinizing public affairs
  Protecting and promoting freedom of speech-press
  Censorship
  Encouraging and supporting citizen journalism
  Free and independent journalism
  Freedom of information
  Freedom of press
  Freedom of speech
  Promote pluralism
  Providing information
  Protecting democratic values and rights
  Defending and promoting democracy
  Gender equality
  Promoting justice
  Protect right of individuals
  Protection of human rights
  Reject manifestations of state authoritarianism
  Stand up for human values
  Public interest
  Transparency
  Upholding the reputation of journalism
  Being loyal to supervisors
  Call out unethical behaviour of colleagues
  Collecting information in ethical and legal manner
  Dignity of journalism as a profession
  Don\'t do harm to profession or media
  Not support environmental damage
  Not using journalism to settle private issues or vendettas
  Respect the ethical standards
  Respect the rule of law
  Solidarity with other journalists
  Supporting colleagues in the media
  Trust in the press
  Media independence
  Accepting bribes
  Conflicts of interest
  Disclosing potential conflicts of interest
  Market information
  Disclosing payment from other party than employer
  Independence from commercial interests
  Appearing in promotional material
  Creating promotional publications or work as PR person
  Guidelines for reviews of products
  Naming products or trademarks
  Native (hidden) advertising
  Separation between editorial and commercial policy
  Separation of paid and editorial content
  Independence from government and politics
  Assisting police or security services
  News blackouts
  Political interests
  Independence from media owners
  Transparency regarding media ownership
  Independence regarding personal interests
  Accepting gifts
  Not associating with protesters, strikes, manifestations
  Personal beliefs
  Using job or job-related information for private benefits
  Sponsored or reimbursed goods by third parties
  Work outside journalism
  Letting sources review content of upcoming publication
  Press releases
  Resisting pressures in general
  Self-censorship
  Trading information for benefits
  Media independence in general
  Reporting facts as they are
  Accuracy
  Completeness (full information)
  Correctness
  Distortion of facts or forgery
  Factual
  Hearing all sides of a conflict
  Objectivity
  Opinion polls
  Unfounded accusations or suspicions
  Advanced report
  Audiovisual material
  Manipulation of audio material
  Manipulation of visual material
  Balance and impartiality
  Balance
  Bias
  Impartiality
  Multiple viewpoints
  Correction of errors by media
  Correction in archives
  Corrections of errors online
  Retractions, apologies, clarifications
  Headlines
  Honesty
  Opinions and op-eds
  Opinions should be based on facts
  Publication of letters to the editor or opinions from the public
  Separation between editorial and user-generated content
  Separation between facts and opinions or analysis
  Providing context
  Reality (correspondence to)
  Re-enactments or staging
  Reporting about research
  Re-using material
  Archive material
  Indicate quotation begin and end
  Plagiarism and copyright
  Presenting old work as new
  Use of quotes outside of original context
  Use of visuals outside of original context
  Rigorous reasoning
  Scrupulous
  Thoughtfulness
  Troll campaign
  Trustworthiness
  Truthfulness
  Truth
  Use of quotes
  Verification of information
  Carefulness in selection of sources
  Checking the reliability of sources
  Checking the work of non-editorial staff (like freelancers)
  Fact checking of news agency's content
  Leaks
  Naming the sources
  Rumours and unconfirmed or unverified reports
  Verified information
  Rights of journalism
  Author is entitled to see article before publication
  Authorship
  Editors cannot change the substance of the production
  Freedom of the press
  Media are NOT the public opinion
  Freedom to advocate and give own views
  Informed about decisions in the media company
  Labour rights of journalism
  No obligation to disclose notes, drafts and records
  Protecting secrets
  Refusing unethical assignments
  Condemn falsification of one\'s journalistic product
  Not acting against one's convictions
  Not acting against the principles of the Code of Ethics
  Not be obliged to remove content that is not unlawful
  Refuse assignments that violate laws and ethics
  Refuse to be named as author
  Refuse to prepare promotional materials
  Refuse to produce content not in line with reality
  Refuse to write for another person
  Selling story somewhere else after rejection
  Support from media outlets for journalist
  Support from professional organizations
  Working conditions
  Freelancers
  Media outlets have obligation to pay their authors
  Obligations of editors towards outside contributors
  Professional training
  Salary that guarantees economic independence
  Security
  Time and resources

Being fair

Journalists have to be fair when dealing with sources and subjects. They should prevent unnecessary harm to people and work to maintain people's dignity

This principle was found in:

The signatories of these Ethical Guidelines declare that they acknowledge the obligation to disseminate accurate, fair, and factual information based on their best professional knowledge.

Abuse of power

This principle was found in:

Journalists do not abuse their position and refrain from inciting incidents with the intention of creating news.

The journalist may not abuse his position, especially in regard to persons in a vulnerable situation such as minors, victims of crime, of disasters and accidents and those closest to them.

The journalist must not exploit his duties for the principal purpose of acquiring prestige or personal influence.

While collecting information, the journalist should not abuse of his social status or of his professional opportunities, exert pressure on the sources, promise or offer them any compensationsfavors.

use their professional status to exert pressure on any person for the purpose of taking advantage or meeting the journalists personal needs;

Confidentiality

This principle was found in:

Should an informant stipulate, as a condition for the use of his/her report, that he/she remain unrecognisable or unendangered as the source, this is to be respected. Confidentiality can be non-binding only if the information concerns a crime and there is a duty to inform the police. Confidentiality may also be lifted if, in carefully weighing interests, important reasons of state predominate, particularly if the constitutional order is affected or jeopardised.

Confidentiality is to be adhered to in principle.

The Press shall respect professional secrecy, make use of the right to refuse to bear witness and shall not reveal informants' identities without their explicit permission.

All person-related data gathered, processed and used for journalistic-editorial purposes are subject to editorial secrecy. Transfer of such data between editorial departments is permissible. It is not to be done until conclusion of a formal complaint procedure under data protection law. A data transfer is to be annotated with the remark that the data is to be edited or used only for journalistic-editorial purposes.

Journalists shall protect confidential sources of information.

Journalists shall keep secret the identity of informers to whom they have promised confidentiality. The same shall apply when journalists may presume that the information was given to them under the condition of anonymity or when they may fear endangering such informants. In such cases, journalists do not disclose anything that would make their source identifiable.

Journalists must protect the identity of sources to whom they have promised confidentiality, and of sources with regard to whom they knew or could have known that they have given them information on the assumption that they would not disclose their identities.

The journalist must protect the identity of sources to whom he guaranteed confidentiality, and of sources whom the journalist knew or should have known, would only provide information in the expectation that their identities would not be revealed.

They must not reveal, not even in court, their confidential sources except when they have been deceived by false information.

The journalist shall not reveal the identity of his or her source if such a promise was made, except if a court or other authority entitled by law obliges the journalist to do so. But even in such a situation the journalist must strive to avoid doing so by legal means.

The journalist does not reveal his or her source, and does not misuse the information.

The journalist shall observe professional secrecy regarding the source of information obtained in confidence.

The journalist will not undertake any activity or engagement likely to put his/her independence in danger. He/she will, however, respect the methods of collection/dissemination of information that he/she has freely accepted, such as "off the record", anonymity, or embargo, provided that these commitments are clear and unquestionable.

To observe professional secrecy and not to divulge the source of information obtained in confidence;

A journalist must accomplish all the activities of his profession (enquiry, investigations, taking photos and recording sounds etc.) freely, have access to all sources of information with regard to the facts which condition public life, and have the guarantee that his sources' confidentiality will be protected.

Maintains professional confidentiality and protects the sources of his information;

We shall protect the identity of confidential sources of information.

Media outlets have a moral obligation to safeguard the identity of confidential sources of information.

These requirements are such that we must reinforce the safeguards of the journalist's freedom of expression, for they must in the last instance operate as the ultimate sources of information. In this connection we must legally expand and clarify the nature of the conscience clause and professional secrecy vis-a-vis confidential sources, harmonising national provisions on this matter so that they can be implemented in the wider context of democratic Europe.

Professional secrecy is a journalists right, as well as a duty that guarantees the confidentiality of information sources. Consequently, journalists shall guarantee the right of their information sources to remain anonymous, if so requested. However, such a professional duty may be surrendered as an exception in the event that it is reliably stated that the source has knowingly misrepresented information or when disclosure of the source is the only means to avoid serious and immediate harm to persons.

To assure the credibility of the information, the sources must be quoted. However, journalists have the moral obligation to protect them by invoking professional secrecy when necessary. Confidentiality is useful to protect people in a situation of vulnerability or risk, but in no case the anonymity can be used for unjustified attacks against individuals and organizations.

The journalist is entitled and duty bound to conceal the identity of any person who has provided confidential information by agreement with the source. If the publication of information that is in the public interest results in highly negative publicity, it is desirable that the editorial office makes public how the reliability of the anonymous source and the information obtained from it has been assured.

A journalist has no right to reveal a source without its permission, except if it is demanded by a court.

Journalists and publishers are obliged to respect professional secrecy on the sources of a piece of information, when it is required by the fiduciary character of them;

Adhere to professional confidentiality as to the source of the information which was obtained in strict confidence;

A journalist is obliged to keep secret the source of their information, including the person and image of the informant if required by the informant with the reservation that the secret may be disclosed only to the journalist's supervisor.

If the information is not generally known or is not widely known in the sector the journalist is writing about, the journalist is always required to provide a source of his or her information. The journalist is not obliged to provide a source if the source is confidential or secret. The journalist can use such a source in compliance with the provisions of this Code of Ethics about the special source utilization.

The journalist adheres to the promise of protecting the identity of the informant until the informant exempts the journalist from this duty.

A journalist can agree to ensure the anonymity of the source of identifiable information. Such a source can be used only if the information could not be obtained in a different manner and publishing it is within the public interest. The journalist shall honour the agreement regarding the anonymity of the source.

The journalist has the responsibility to maintain the confidentiality of those sources who request to remain anonymous, or of those sources whose life, physical or mental integrity, or workplace could be in jeopardy if their identities were revealed.

The protection of professional secrecy and of confidential sources is both a right and an obligation of the journalist.

The press agrees to observe professional secrecy which implies the right to remain silent sources of information, as defined in the law. She has the right to refuse disclose in the course of an administrative or judicial procedure information identifying a source. It is committed to ensuring that confidential sources of information will without the explicit permission of the informants.

a) The law provides for the protection of sources in Article 7. However, some cases that have arisen since the entry into force show that protection remains fragile as those concerned did not yet have the experience and necessary routines. After meeting with the State Attorney, the Council of Press plans to instruct its chairman or the lack of it a vice-Presidents or his duly authorized representative with the mission to attend any searches to ensure, at any place, that the protection of journalists' sources is respected.

If the source of information issues a request to keep his name secret, the journalists, producers and communicators of public information have no right to disclose it. In such a case, the journalists, producers and communicators of public information assume legal and moral liability for the information published.

The journalist respects the legal provisions on confidentiality of information and the embargo on the publication of information. Breach of these restrictions is permissible only if they have been misused to prevent the publication of information of extreme public interest.

He/she has the right not to disclose the source of the information, but is responsible for the published information.

Functionaries of the Media have a moral obligation to observe professional privilege regarding the source of information obtained confidentially. A journalist is not obliged to reveal the source of his information. At the same time, it is the duty of a journalist to make sure that his sources and their information are reliable.

Journalists shall not divulge the name of a person when information is provided on a confidential basis, unless consent has been explicitly given by the person concerned.

The right to the anonymity may be broken only if: a) There is suspicion that the source consciously has distorted truth or is seeking to manipulate media for personal gain;

b) The reference to the name of the source is the only way to avoid serious and inevitable damage to others;

c) The information in question relates to the planning of a serious criminal act or is of major concern for public welfare.

To the extent possible, avoid using confidential sources of information and, before promising to keep the source of information confidential, always justify that decision. However, if the provision of information is conditioned upon keeping the source confidential, never to disclose the source;

A journalist doesn't uncover his (her) informational sources, except cases when the Ukrainian law demands it.

Whenever possible, journalists should rely on open, identified sources of information. These sources are to be preferred to anonymous sources, whose honesty and accuracy cannot be judged by the public.

Journalists have an obligation to protect the identity of those who provide information in confidence, whether or not they explicitly request confidentiality.

To respect professional secrecy and not reveal the source of any information obtained in confidence.

Journalists have a moral responsibility not to disclose con?dential sources.

Newspapers and their publications have an obligation to protect the identity of those who provide information in confidence, whether or not they explicitly request confidentiality.

The journalist protects the identity of his sources in accordance with the provisions of the Law no.642010 on Freedom of Expression.

The journalist respects the information source's wish to remain anonymous and at the same time assumes responsibility for the truthfulness of the information made public from anonymous sources.

It is a right and duty of a journalist to protect confidential information sources, but also always to check motives of the confidential source before one is promised anonymity and protection.

(a) Where a person has agreed to supply information only on condition that his or her identity remains confidential and the journalist agrees to this condition, the journalist must respect this undertaking and refuse to reveal the identity of the source. However, the njournalist has to warn the source that his or her identity might have to be revealed to the courts if this information is needed to solve or prevent serious criminal conduct. n(b) Broadcasting media shall apply appropriate technical procedures (voice distortion or face blurring) in order to provide secrecy of identity of the person who gives a statement under the condition that he/she remains anonymous. n(c) Documents classified as secret may be reported if after careful consideration it is determined, that the publics need to know outweighs the reasons put forward to justify secrecy.

The journalist shall point out the source of information, but if the source demands to remain anonymous the journalist shall protect him.

Do not divulge the name of a person who has provided information on a confidential basis, unless consent has been explicitly given by the person concerned.

Professional integrity means that a journalist must keep confidential the source of information which was provided on the condition of anonymity.

Confidential information. Journalists have a moral responsibility for keeping their sources of information confidential. A journalists professional association or professional organisation should define the level of protection of the disclosing partys confidentiality preferred or acceptable for the journalist.

The Collegium recommends that journalists never break their promise of confidentiality given to a disclosing party.

The information provided on the condition that it remains confidential shall not be published unless severely required due to the public interest.

The journalist protects the confidentiality of his/her sources. An exception are cases where a source aims to mislead the public due to personal, political and similar causes.

editorial staff is to report to the authorities. It is recommended that in these cases a legal advisor is consulted.

In case that the source of information insists on remaining unnamed, the editorial staff is obliged to respect that choice. A deviation from this rule is permissible only if the information relates to planning of a crime or a violation of the constitutional order and security of the state, when the obligation of the

A journalist is obliged to respect a request for anonymity from the source of information. Inv

Anonymity confidentiality should be provided for the sources that can provide "first hand", information, that is, documents that directly confirm or, by itself, represent information of great public importance.

An editor is required to check with the journalist the justification for the use of anonymous (confidential) sources of information. Regarding this, it is necessary that at least one editor knows and protects the identity of an anonymous source.

If the source of information requests from the journalist that their identity remain confidential even to the editor, this request should be rejected.

At the request of an editor a journalist may tell them the identity of a source who wishes to remain anonymous, and the editor is obliged to protect the anonymity of the source.

If a source of information is unnamed, the editor must be informed of the identity of the source, since both, journalists and editors are responsible for the accuracy of the information published.

A journalist has the right not to disclose the identity of an anonymous (confidential) source to the editor. In this case, the editor may decide not to publish the information obtained from a source unknown to them, and this procedure shall not be considered censorship and is in accordance with the Code.

Confidential sources Journalists have a moral obligation to protect confidential sources of information

Publishers must protect the anonymity of sources where confidentiality has been agreed and not waived by the source, except where the source has been manifestly dishonest.

Dignity

This principle was found in:

Respect for the truth, preservation of human dignity and accurate informing of the public are the overriding principles of the Press. In this way, every person active in the Press preserves the standing and credibility of the media.

Physical and mental illnesses or injuries are part of a person's private sphere. As a rule the press should refrain from reporting about illnesses or injuries without the consent of the affected persons.

Violating people's dignity with inappropriate representations in word and image contradicts journalistic ethics.

respecting the rights of persons.

Journalists shall take into account the rights of any person mentioned explicitly or implicitly in a piece of information. They shall weigh these rights against the general interest of the information.

Image rights apply to images accessible online.

Journalists shall respect the privacy of individuals and shall not reveal any personal data that are not relevant to the general interest.

Journalists shall avoid intrusion into the pain of persons and the dissemination of information and images offensive to human dignity except where relevant to the public interest.

The journalist is duty bound to respect human rights and to self-impose high standards regards to: (I) to report information truthfully and faithfully (II) gathering and sharing information independently (III) to be fair and (IV) to show respect for privacy and human dignity.

The journalist must take into account the rights of any and all persons mentioned in the reporting. He must weigh those rights up against the public interest in the information.

The journalist must respect human dignity and must not probe further than public interest requires. nThe journalist must practice restraint in the selection of details and/or images for publication, even when the facts concerned strongly affect public opinion.

Journalists must not cause people humiliation or disturb their sorrow.

Before collecting statements and images, the journalist should ensure that the conditions of serenity, freedom, dignity, and responsibility of the people involved are met.

fairly, respecting the private sphere, human dignity and rights;

The journalist respects the constitutional, civil, and personal rights of those actors, with whom he or she communicates professionally.

The journalist places emphasis on not breaching the constitutional, civil, and personal rights of those covered in any capacity during his or her work. The journalist ensures that the actors' personal data, or details of private lives are not published gratuitously (i.e. cannot be justified by public interest or reasonable private interest or is against persons' will) neither in the content nor in other ways, so long as this might affect them adversely in any ways, and the piece of information is not related to their public figure nature. Special attention must be paid to enforcing the personal and deceased rights of reputation of the victims of accidents, catastrophes, and crimes.

The journalist will respect privacy. He/she shall respect the dignity of the persons named and/or represented and inform the interviewee whether the conversation and other material is intended for publication. He/she shall show particular consideration to inexperienced and vulnerable interviewees.

To restrict himself to the respect of privacy;

Respects people's dignity and the presumption of innocence

Every person is entitled to the protection and respect of his/her dignity and personality.

Libellous or disparaging statements about a person or persons violate the Code of Ethics.

We respect the inviolability of everyone's private life.

Without prejudice to protecting the right of citizens to be informed, the journalist shall respect the right of persons to their own privacy and image, bearing in mind that:

The journalists should not use abusive expressions nor disclose facts that are imprecise or without sufficient basis and that may injure the dignity of people and cause harm or discredit to public or private entities.

People should be treated with respect and dignity, particularly the most vulnerable ones. Unnecessary interference and speculations about their feelings and circumstances should be avoided. Harming unjustifiably the dignity of individuals through words or pictures, even beyond their death, disobey the journalistic ethics.

The human dignity of every individual must be respected. The ethnic origin, nationality, sex, sexual orientation, convictions or other similar personal characteristics may not be presented in an inappropriate or disparaging manner.

Highly delicate matters concerning people's personal lives may only be published with the consent of the person in question, or if such matters are of considerable public interest. Protection of privacy must also be considered when using photographic materials.

The right to privacy also applies when publishing public documents or other public sources. The public availability of information does not necessarily imply that it can be freely published. Particular discretion should be used when an issue concerns minors.

In attending to these tasks the media should recognise that the individual citizen is entitled to respect for his/her personal integrity as well as the sanctity of his/her private life and the need for protection against unjustified violation hereof.

Information which may violate the sanctity of private life shall be avoided unless an obvious public interest requires public coverage. The individual is entitled to protection of his/her personal reputation.

A journalist has to respect people, his dignity and his right of secrecy, and he never discriminates between people according to their race, their religion, their sex, their mental and physical condition, or their political views.

A journalist must not publish images and photos of people involved in daily episodes particularly terrifying, taking care to preserve people's dignity. Nor must he dwell upon details of violence or brutality, unless there is a pre-eminent reason of social interest. He must not interfere with reality to create artificial images.

Respect the individuality, dignity and inviolable privacy of people and citizens; Only when required by the right to information, they can draw on elements of the private life of individuals who perform a public function or hold a particular position, exert influence in society and are subject to public scrutiny, , always in a responsible manner;

The private and intimate sphere must not be violated; in justified circumstances, an exception can include activities in the field of investigative journalism, and also for public figures.

In this connection, however, it is important that the individual is protected from unwarranted suffering as a result of publicity.

Consider carefully any publicity which could violate the privacy and integrity of individuals. Refrain from such publicity unless the public interest obviously demands public scrutiny.

Show careful consideration to the harmful consequences that might ensue for persons if their names are published. Refrain from publishing names if it might cause harm unless it is obviously in the public interest.

The journalist must not publish the information or records about the privacy of an individual without the consent of the individual concerned, except in the case of a matter of public interest. The journalist must not lower the reputation, honour or dignity of the individual not even when publishing the information and records in relation to a public interest, except the case where the individual raises suspicion of unlawfully acting or causing offense by his or her actions.

People who are not experienced in communication with journalists, are unaware of the consequences of their actions or find themselves in a particularly difficult life situation, especially victims or witnesses of crimes, accidents or other events that may cause to a person emotional stress, the journalist approaches them with increased sensitivity and responsibility.

The journalist uses children and adolescents as a source of information only in exceptional cases with particular regard to their moral and emotional development.

If it is not ruled out for communication of public interest issues, the journalist is obliged to protect the privacy and legitimate interests of the persons referred to in paragraphs 4 and 5 and the journalist must not misuse their trust.

Under the circumstances listed below, the journalist may also use exceptional means in his work. These are: a) using secret ways of collecting information, including a hidden camera or microphone, b) using concealed and confidential sources, c) disclosing unverified information, d) disclosing information from the privacy of individuals who are not publicly active and their privacy is otherwise protected.

A journalist shall respect the right of an individual to privacy and avoid sensational and unwarranted disclosure of the individual's privacy in public. An intervention in the privacy of an individual is justifiable only if the public interest outweighs the respect for privacy. When reporting about public figures and those who want to gain power and influence, and draw attention, the right of the public to information is more extensive. A journalist should bear in mind that collecting and publishing the information, photographs, and recordings of the individuals can hurt those individuals who are not used to the attention of the media and the public.

The journalist has the responsibility to respect the private life of the individual (including those aspects that regard family, residence, and correspondence). Interference in a person's private life to obtain information is permitted only when the public interest in learning that information prevails. In this context, it is irrelevant whether a public person wanted to acquire that status. An activity is not private merely on the grounds that it is not carried out in public.

The press is committed to respect and uphold the human dignity of each individual. It is committed to respect the right to privacy of the individual. However, in exceptional cases the public interest and freedom of the press may override the right to privacy.

Art. 9 From the picture, sound and audiovisual

Any person, whether public or not known, has a fundamental right to privacy, privacy, dignity and respect for the reputation. The public, its part, the right to be informed about what is in the public interest and the press has a duty the know. Whether in the collection, processing or dissemination of information, media and journalists should exercise caution, discernment and caution. They should worry about actually informing the public, and must be the necessary distinctions between what is public interest and what is the public curiosity. The law about the respect the privacy of the person in Articles 14 15 and a number of conditions that must be observed.

Journalists, producers and the communicators of public information must not publish any information concerning a person's private life without their consent, except if that information is related to a public person, or is important to the society or if violations of the law or criminal offences are recorded.

A producer of public information must not publish the personal data of debtors or any information on their solvency, in the absence of public interest.

Journalists, producers and the communicators of public information must respect human rights and freedoms, even in cases when a person is not aware of their rights or does not understand them.

In their work, journalists have a duty to defend human rights, dignity,

In all journalistic contributions, including comments and polemics, the journalist is obliged to respect the ethics of public speech and the culture of dialogue and to respect the honor, reputation and dignity of the persons or groups with whom he or she enters into a discussion.

A journalist should protect a persons intimacy from sensationalistic disclosure and any other unjustified disclosure to the public. He/she is bound to respect everyones right to privacy. It is unacceptable to shoot or photograph people without their permission, in an environment where privacy is reasonably expected. Violation of ones privacy beyond ones will and knowledge is permissible only if justified by an exceptional public interest.

Particular attention, caution and accountability are required when reporting suicides, accidents, personal tragedies, illnesses, deaths and acts of violence. A journalist should avoid interviewing and portraying persons who are directly or indirectly affected by these events, except in the case of extreme public interest. In this case, the journalist is obliged to take into account the honor, reputation and dignity of the persons he/she reports about.

The Media and journalists do not make personal attacks and do not use insulting and abusive words which injure the honour and reputation of individuals.

Any incorrect or false information that intentionally or unintentionally may cause harm to the image and reputation of another person constitutes a breach of human dignity.

To respect and protect the human right to private life, including respect to personal and family life, residence, property, health condition, correspondence. Only public interest or protection thereof can justify publication of information regarding the privacy of high rank officials, public figures, and individuals aspiring to power or public attention;

A journalist has to respect peoples private life. At the same time his right to investigative journalism is saved, when it is connected to some other events or facts, which are a matter of public importance and aimed at protecting social and individual interests.

Journalists shall at all times perform their work in the spirit of fairness, honesty, and civility when collecting information, reporting and presenting opinions.

Journalists shall always report truthfully and accurately about the outcome of an action undertaken as a result of defamation they were involved in.

Journalists shall develop the awareness of gender equality and the respect of individuality as the integral part of human rights.

Journalists shall protect the rights of the individual, while at the same time upholding the right to information in the public interest.

Journalists shall avoid intrusions into and individuals private life unless such intrusions are necessary for the public interest.

Topics involving personal tragedy shall be treated with consideration, and the affected individuals shall be approached with discretion and sympathy.

In case of a critical speech addressed to a particular person, the journalist must give priority to protecting their privacy, and in case of a critical speech addressed to a public person, he should give priority to the public interest.

The journalist is obliged to respect the right to privacy and dignity of persons, including of deceased persons.

The journalist reports about the private behavior of a private person only if such behavior disturbs public order or infringes the rights of other persons.

A journalist is obliged to be very careful when dealing with private life of people. A right to private life is disproportional to the importance of a public function that an individual performs, but in those cases, it is necessary to respect human dignity as well.

A journalist is obliged to protect integrity of adolescent persons, different and disabled persons.

Peoples private addresses enjoy special protection.

Physical and mental illness or injuries come fundamentally within the private sphere of the persons affected. Out of consideration for them and their dependants, the media should not publish names and photographs in such cases and should avoid using disparaging terms to describe their illness, even if they are terms in popular usage.

All the above guidelines on the right to privacy apply – where appropriate - also after the death of the person concerned.

The journalist shall respect the privacy of every person, except in cases when that is on the contrary with the public interest.

Always respect a persons character and identity, privacy, ethnicity, nationality and belief..Be careful when using terms that create stigmas. Never draw attention to personal or private aspects if they are irrelevant.

Professional standards in journalism include honouring the right to privacy and human dignity in accordance with the provisions of international and national laws.

Respect for human dignity is reflected in professional ethical attitude to the reputation of the individuals targeted by the media, and in the refusal to use slander, insult and defamation.

Statements that are humiliating, degrading or sullying individuals and organizations beyond the limits of criticism shall not be allowed.

The private life of individuals shall not be the subject of publication, except when required due to the public interests.

A journalist respects the privacy, dignity and integrity of the people they write about.

A journalist must have an awareness of the power of media, or the possible consequences for the victim or the perpetrator, if their identity is disclosed. They must take into account, in particular, the weight of the possible consequences in case of any errors incorrect assumptions in reporting.

Except where justified by the public interest, publishers must respect peoples reasonable expectation of privacy. Such an expectation may be determined by factors that include, but are not limited to, the following: a. The nature of the information concerned, such as whether it relates to intimate, family, health or medical matters or personal finances;

b. The nature of the place concerned, such as a home, school or hospital;

c. How the information concerned was held or communicated, such as in private correspondence or a personal diary;

d. The relevant attributes of the person, such as their age, occupation or public profile; and

e. Whether the person had voluntarily courted publicity on a relevant aspect of their private life.

Anonymization

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If journalists are requested to anonymize archived articles or to remove these, then in exceptional cases only will they allow for the public interest of archives of the highest level of completeness and reliability to be outweighed by the private interests of those who make the request.

The journalist will not undertake any activity or engagement likely to put his/her independence in danger. He/she will, however, respect the methods of collection/dissemination of information that he/she has freely accepted, such as "off the record", anonymity, or embargo, provided that these commitments are clear and unquestionable.

In cases here the sources require anonymity, a journalist has to respect the professional secret and has to be able to inform the reader of such circumstance.

Decency

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Doing his or her job, the journalist is obliged to communicate according to the norms of social interaction.

We shall respect good taste and decency in our publications.

Primary values of journalist's work are values of personal freedom, justice and decency. In their work, they promote these values in society.

The journalist always uses adequate means of expression.

Journalists shall abide by commonly accepted social standards of decency and respect for ethnic, cultural and religious diversity of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

The journalist shall observe the general social standards of decency and shall respect the ethnic, cultural and religious differences in the Republic of Macedonia.

Definition of public person

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Public figures are people who, in the circles relevant to the report, have a public or civic responsible function or role to play, or who enjoy wider media notoriety.

The journalist considers public figures as follows, based on their activities: a) every person holding an elected office; b) every person serving as public officer; c) every person serving public duties; d) every person working before the public (actors, performers of programmes, musicians, other artists, sportsmen, church leaders, businessmen, journalists, university professors, vigilantes, lawyers participating in trials of public interest, leaders of sports clubs, etc.); e) every officer of state-owned companies either directly or indirectly to some extent, of companies in monopolistic positions, or of companies interested in public procurements participating in transactions connected to taxpayers' money.

We do not consider public figures to be those who are not in the public interest, or those who have attained such an interest inadvertently. For example, accident eyewitnesses, the relatives of public figures, crime victims, lottery winners, survivors of catastrophes would not be regarded as public figures.

Individuals in possession of political and economic power and information important to the public shall be considered as public figures; and their activities shall be subject to closer scrutiny and criticism. The media shall also consider as public figures individuals who earn their living through publicly promoting their persona or their work.

Freedom of expression versus other human rights

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The journalist considers the freedom of opinions regarding public figures to be broader than in other cases. It is appropriate to allow tough, or even provocative arguments, in justified cases compliant with the law.

However, journalists also consider that whilst their profession allows them the use and enjoyment of their constitutional rights to freedom of expression and the right to information, this is subject to limits that prevent the infringement of other fundamental rights.

In case of a conflict between the freedom of expression and other fundamental human rights, the media independently decides what to give preference to, and bears responsibility for its decision;

It should be interpreted neither so narrowly as to compromise its commitment to respect the rights of the individual, nor so broadly that it infringes the fundamental right to freedom of expression – such as to inform, to be partisan, to challenge, shock, be satirical and to entertain – or prevents publication in the public interest.

Making accusations

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Everyone has constitutional protection for his or her good name. The press shall not knowingly publish matter based on malicious misrepresentation or unfounded accusations, and must take reasonable care in checking facts before publication.

Where journalists broadcast serious accusations that could damage a person's reputation or honour, they shall give that person an opportunity to put forward his or her point of view before the accusations are broadcast. The impossibility of obtaining an answer does not prevent the dissemination of information, but the public must be warned of this impossibility.

Journalists must hear those who are disqualified as a result of a publication, even if their role is marginal. Those who are accused must be given ample opportunity to respond to the accusations, preferably in the same publication. Note that hearing both sides does not relieve journalists from their duty to report as truthfully as possible.

Accusations are only published subject to a proper investigation to establish whether there is a sound basis, certainly so if these accusations are expressed by persons who are in conflict with the accused or who are otherwise affected.

Before the editorial office decides to publish a response that contains a serious allegation, they must verify whether the allegation has a sound basis.

The journalist will consider serious professional misconduct to be

No charges shall be made against any person(s) or institution(s) unless proof can be furnished that an attempt has been made to obtain a statement on said charges form the person(s) or institution(s) so charged. If the charge in question has been made in public, this circumstance shall be clearly indicated, and the source of said charge shall be named.

Journalists, producers and the communicators of public information must not publish any unreasonable, unchecked accusations which are not substantiated by facts.

Journalists must maintain the highest professional and ethical standards. They must take all reasonable steps to ensure that they disseminate only accurate information, and that their comments on events are genuine and honest. They must never publish information that they know to be false or maliciously make unfounded allegations about others that are intended to harm their reputations. It is journalist's right to refuse an assignment being opposite to the ethic codex.

People who passed away

Personal information

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The regulations pertaining to editorial data protection apply to the Press in gathering, processing or using information about persons for journalistic-editorial purposes. From research to editing, publishing, documenting and storing these data, the Press must respect people's privacy and right to self-determination on information about them.

Personal data gathered in violation of the Press Code are to be blocked or deleted by the publication involved.

All person-related data gathered, processed and used for journalistic-editorial purposes are subject to editorial secrecy. Transfer of such data between editorial departments is permissible. It is not to be done until conclusion of a formal complaint procedure under data protection law. A data transfer is to be annotated with the remark that the data is to be edited or used only for journalistic-editorial purposes.

The private address as well as other private locations, such as hospitals, care facilities, rehabilitation centres enjoy special protection.

If a press report has a negative effect on someone's personal rights, on request the affected person must be given information about the respective personal data stored by the responsible publication organ.

The journalist places emphasis on not breaching the constitutional, civil, and personal rights of those covered in any capacity during his or her work. The journalist ensures that the actors' personal data, or details of private lives are not published gratuitously (i.e. cannot be justified by public interest or reasonable private interest or is against persons' will) neither in the content nor in other ways, so long as this might affect them adversely in any ways, and the piece of information is not related to their public figure nature. Special attention must be paid to enforcing the personal and deceased rights of reputation of the victims of accidents, catastrophes, and crimes.

In case a person's name is not published, also refrain from publishing a picture of that person or details on occupation, title, age, nationality, sex, etc, which could enable identification.

The press is committed to respecting the right of access to personal information each individual, this especially in the case of personal data as defined in the law on data protection. The right of access to personal information shall not, however, never undermine the protection of journalistic sources.

Directive - In case of search in a newspaper company or audiovisual making Following a commission or inquiry, the Chairman, or the lack of it a vice-presidents or his duly mandated to assist with the search mission to ensure that the provisions guaranteeing freedom of expression in the media are met. (Adopted in plenary meeting of 28 March 2006)

The right of access to the data can never be the origin of data. He does not know either be done in order to compromise dissemination of a publication. (Adopted in plenary meeting of 28 March 2006)

Showing respect to the secrecy of a private life, the journalists, producers and communicators of public information must not publish any information on a person's state of health, treatment or forecasts, as well as any other health-related information, without the consent of the said person or their legal representatives. Such information may be published without the consent of the person's relatives only in a case where the whole of the following conditions exists: when a public person is concerned, publishing such information is in the public interest, and when an official conclusion of a medical institution is available.

Protecting privacy and identity includes not only protection of names (labelling a suspect by using initials), but also protecting other data that could direct to the identity: photos, address, description of appearance, marital status, social status, belonging to a group, the names of neighbours, relatives and friends.

Pictures in non-public places

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Taking photographs of individuals in private places without their consent is not acceptable, unless justified by the public interest.

Journalists must refrain from publishing pictures and broadcasting images of persons in generally non-public areas without their permission, or using letters and personal notes without the permission from those involved.

The use of private photographs for publication shall be conditional upon the previous consent of the person(s) affected or, in the case of minors, their parents or guardians, unless publication of the picture is justified as being in the public interest.

We shall avoid publishing photographs and recordings of individuals if these photographs and recordings were taken or made outside of the realm of a public space and without their consent.

A journalist may not unreasonably (i.e. without the signs of express or overwhelming public interest) spy on an object of their professional interest; a journalist should receive consent for taking pictures of and/or filming a person at all times, except when such person is in a public place.

Pictures in public places

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GUIDELINE FOR ARTICLE 23. IMAGES TAKEN IN PUBLIC PLACES OR AREAS THAT ARE ACCESSIBLE TO THE PRESS

At public appearances and events, the journalist is authorised to make text, audio, audiovisual and image records without explicit consent of the performers only if the copyrights and laws are not violated. The journalist can act equally while collecting records and gathering information in public spaces.

The journalist respects the privacy of persons and asks their permission to photograph/film them, except when they are in a public place.

Principle of no harm

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They weigh the interest of publication against the interests that could be harmed by publication.

The reputation of any individual shall not be unduly harmed without there being sufficient evidence that the information regarding that person is in the public interest.

The journalist must embrace the principle that every person is innocent until proven otherwise and avoid as far as possible any harmful consequences resulting from the fulfilment of his or her journalistic duties. Such criteria are particularly enforceable if the information deals with matters submitted to the Courts of Law.

Avoid harm due to information without sufficient basis

Privacy (and the public interest)

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In the case of relatives and other persons who are indirectly affected by a publication and have nothing to do with the actual object of reporting, the publication of names and photographs is generally impermissible.

The names and photographs of missing persons may be published, however only in agreement with the responsible authorities.

The publication of anniversary dates of persons who are otherwise not in the public eye requires that the editorial department confirms in advance whether those involved consent to the publication or not.

Privacy is a human right, protected as a personal right in the Irish Constitution and the European Convention on Human Rights, which is incorporated into Irish law. The private and family life, home and correspondence of everyone must be respected.

Readers are entitled to have news and comment presented with respect for the privacy and sensibilities of individuals. However, the right to privacy should not prevent publication of matters of public record or in the public interest.

Journalists shall take into account the rights of any person mentioned explicitly or implicitly in a piece of information. They shall weigh these rights against the general interest of the information.

Journalists shall respect the privacy of individuals and shall not reveal any personal data that are not relevant to the general interest.

A publication must not infringe the privacy of persons any more than is reasonably required within the framework of the report. An intrusion of privacy would be imprudent if not in reasonable proportion to the social interest of the publication.

Public figures must accept a certain degree of exposure to unwanted publicity. In their private surroundings, they too have the right to privacy, unless their conduct in their private lives demonstrably affects their public performance.

If journalists are requested to anonymize archived articles or to remove these, then in exceptional cases only will they allow for the public interest of archives of the highest level of completeness and reliability to be outweighed by the private interests of those who make the request.

The journalist must respect the right to privacy and must not probe further than public interest requires.

When the person involved has limited access to information or images on social media or a personal website, then this information may not be used in principle. The journalist must demonstrate a considerable public interest to justify its use. If there is no such overriding public interest, then he asks the person involved for permission.

Full identification of suspects and condemned persons is permissible under one of the following conditions.

A journalist has to respect the private life of citizens except when the public interest demands revelation or when the behaviour of the person in question is contradictory to the values and principles that they publicly defend.

At the same time, in the case of public figures, it may be justified to publicly disclose certain details of their private life, family, financial situation, or even their health status if it affects their public duty, or if the public figure has willingly made the information.

The journalist places emphasis on not breaching the constitutional, civil, and personal rights of those covered in any capacity during his or her work. The journalist ensures that the actors' personal data, or details of private lives are not published gratuitously (i.e. cannot be justified by public interest or reasonable private interest or is against persons' will) neither in the content nor in other ways, so long as this might affect them adversely in any ways, and the piece of information is not related to their public figure nature. Special attention must be paid to enforcing the personal and deceased rights of reputation of the victims of accidents, catastrophes, and crimes.

The privacy of all individuals shall in principle be protected.

In concrete cases, and in particular in the case of public figures, it may be necessary to weigh carefully the justified interest of that individual in not having a report or a photograph published against the public interest in having said material published.

Only an exceptional circumstance that is important to the public interest would justify the media's intrusion into private and family life.

According to the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights, public figures can expect a lesser degree of privacy; however, information about their private lives can be disclosed only if it serves the public interest.

Materials violating the privacy of an individual can only be disseminated if public interest outweighs the right to privacy.

The attempt to strike a balance between the right to respect for private life, enshrined in Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights, and the freedom of expression set forth in Article 10, is well documented in the recent case-law of the European Commission and Court of Human Rights.

The right of individuals to privacy must be respected. Persons holding office in public life are entitled to protection for their privacy except in those cases where their private life may have an effect on their public life. The fact that a person holds a public post does not deprive him of the right to respect for his privacy.

Defence of the public interest alone justifies intrusion or inquiry into a person's private life without his or her prior consent.

Reconcile the individual rights with the public right to know

Highly delicate matters concerning people's personal lives may only be published with the consent of the person in question, or if such matters are of considerable public interest. Protection of privacy must also be considered when using photographic materials.

Information which may violate the sanctity of private life shall be avoided unless an obvious public interest requires public coverage. The individual is entitled to protection of his/her personal reputation.

Information which may violate the sanctity of private life shall be avoided unless an obvious public interest requires public coverage. The individual is entitled to protection of his/her personal reputation.

Extenuating circumstances, insulting or denigratory references concerning people and their privacy, are only acceptable when they are of relevant public interest.

A journalist respects the right of secrecy of every person, and he cannot publish news of their private life, unless they are transparent and of relevant public interest. How

Names of the relations of people involved in such daily events cannot be published, unless they are of relevant public interest; nor can they be made known in case of danger of people's safety, nor can publish other elements be published, that can make clear people's identity (photos, images).

Respect the individuality, dignity and inviolable privacy of people and citizens; Only when required by the right to information, they can draw on elements of the private life of individuals who perform a public function or hold a particular position, exert influence in society and are subject to public scrutiny, , always in a responsible manner;

The private and intimate sphere must not be violated; in justified circumstances, an exception can include activities in the field of investigative journalism, and also for public figures.

Consider carefully any publicity which could violate the privacy and integrity of individuals. Refrain from such publicity unless the public interest obviously demands public scrutiny.

Show careful consideration to the harmful consequences that might ensue for persons if their names are published. Refrain from publishing names if it might cause harm unless it is obviously in the public interest.

The journalist must not publish the information or records about the privacy of an individual without the consent of the individual concerned, except in the case of a matter of public interest. The journalist must not lower the reputation, honour or dignity of the individual not even when publishing the information and records in relation to a public interest, except the case where the individual raises suspicion of unlawfully acting or causing offense by his or her actions.

A journalist shall respect the right of an individual to privacy and avoid sensational and unwarranted disclosure of the individual's privacy in public. An intervention in the privacy of an individual is justifiable only if the public interest outweighs the respect for privacy. When reporting about public figures and those who want to gain power and influence, and draw attention, the right of the public to information is more extensive. A journalist should bear in mind that collecting and publishing the information, photographs, and recordings of the individuals can hurt those individuals who are not used to the attention of the media and the public.

A journalist shall report about suicide and attempted suicide only if it serves the public interest. In doing so, the causes and circumstances of suicide or attempted suicide are stated with caution. Methods and locations of the deed are not stated. The identity of the person who committed suicide or attempted to commit suicide is disclosed only if it serves the public interest. The exception to this is reporting about historical figures.

The press is committed to respect and uphold the human dignity of each individual. It is committed to respect the right to privacy of the individual. However, in exceptional cases the public interest and freedom of the press may override the right to privacy.

The Act of 2 August 2002 on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data information obligations regarding the treatment data produced as part of freedom of expression in Article 9.

It is envisaged to amend the legislation so as to give the Commission the Complaints of the Press Council mission to address any claim of a person Private sue media for data protection. The right Access to information can be exercised only in the presence of the President of Press Council or his representative.

Intervention of the National Commission for Data Protection not will only alternative in case the decision of the Claims Commission does not give satisfaction to the applicant. The right of access to the data can never be the origin of the data. There are will not be in order to affect the diffusion of publication.

The reputation and private life of every individual is respected. Intrusions and investigations into the private life of individuals without their consent,

A journalist must respect the right of an individual to privacy. Only the protection of the public interest can justify journalistic investigations which interfere with the private aspects of the lives of individuals. Journalists shall only make reference to personal or private aspects of peoples lives when they are relevant.

Public figures are entitled to less privacy than other individuals. However, information on their private lives and information related to their family and friends should be disclosed only when it serves the public interest. Public officers are also justified in not disclosing their private life except for the cases when their private life may affect their public activity.

To avoid prejudice against people on the ground of their race, sex, age, religion, nationality, geographic origin, sexual orientation, physical handicap, external look or social status;

Not to promote in any way ethnic or religious hatred and intolerance, or any discrimination on political, social, sexual, and language grounds, exclude hate speech;

Journalists shall avoid intrusions into and individuals private life unless such intrusions are necessary for the public interest.

Topics involving personal tragedy shall be treated with consideration, and the affected individuals shall be approached with discretion and sympathy.

To respect peoples' privacy in so far as the public interest does not demand otherwise.

Journalists must pay respect to privacy, and not intrude into the private lives of people unless there is special public interest.

The press shall avoid intrusions and enquiries into an individuals private life, unless such intrusions or enquiries are necessary due to the public interest.

In case of a critical speech addressed to a particular person, the journalist must give priority to protecting their privacy, and in case of a critical speech addressed to a public person, he should give priority to the public interest.

Interfering with ones privacy is allowed only when the disclosure of facts pursues a public interest.

The journalist reports about the private behavior of a public person who performs a public function without their consent only when such behavior affects their capacity of performing the public function or there is another well-grounded reason for offering such information to the society.

A journalist is obliged to be very careful when dealing with private life of people. A right to private life is disproportional to the importance of a public function that an individual performs, but in those cases, it is necessary to respect human dignity as well.

(a) The journalist should not intrude into and report on a persons private life without his or her consent. The publics right to information must always be weighed against the personal rights of those involved.

(b) Reporting on a persons private life can be justified when it is in the public interest to do so. This would include: detecting or exposing criminal conduct; detecting or exposing seriously anti-social conduct; protecting public health and safety; corruption, etc. Reporting on a persons private life is also justified if it prevents the public from being misled by some statement or action of that individual such as where a person is doing something in private which he or she is publicly condemning.

(c) Journalists are entitled to probe the private life of someone who is or intends to be public official. It is correctly proceeded where this conduct has a bearing upon his or her suitability for the assignment he/she performs or wants to perform it.

The journalist shall respect the privacy of every person, except in cases when that is on the contrary with the public interest.

Professional standards in journalism include honouring the right to privacy and human dignity in accordance with the provisions of international and national laws.

The right to privacy is the right to live ones own life with a minimum of interference. This right covers an individuals personal, family and home life, physical and spiritual integrity, honour and reputation. Respect for privacy means that a journalist may not misrepresent a person, disclose any of their disadvantageous facts not related to public interest, publish private photographs without the persons consent, demonstrate any unreasonable, unacceptable or unwanted behaviour, misuse personal correspondence, disclose information provided or received on condition of anonymity.

The right of privacy may not be referred to by individuals whose own actions contribute to the dissemination of defamatory information about them.

The privacy of public figures and persons with prominent social standing should be protected, unless it may impact major social events. An individual involved in the news may not be deprived of their right of privacy.

Interference with privacy. It is unacceptable for a journalist to interfere with ones privacy, including the sanctity of their home, personal and family details, correspondence and health information.

Cases of overwhelming public interest are exceptions to this general professional rule.

A journalist respects the privacy, dignity and integrity of the people they write about.

Public figures are aware in advance that their right to privacy is somewhat limited, but this does not mean that the media can violate it without any reason or explanation.

Data from the private lives of public figures are published only if it is in the public interest, or if they have a direct impact on a number of people, if they are in contradiction with the spirit of the function which that person performs, or ideas that the person publicly advocates.

Everyone is entitled to respect for private and family life, home, physical and mental health, and correspondence, including digital communications.

Editors will be expected to justify intrusions into any individuals private life without consent. In considering an individuals reasonable expectation of privacy, account will be taken of the complainants own public disclosures of information and the extent to which the material complained about is already in the public domain or will become so.

It is unacceptable to photograph individuals, without their consent, in public or private places where there is a reasonable expectation of privacy.

Publishers must give reasonable consideration to the request of a person who, when under the age of 16 years, was identified in their publication and now wishes the online version of the relevant article(s) to be anonymised.

Respect privacy settings when reporting on social media content;

Protecting people's personal information

Protection of the good name of a person

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Everyone has constitutional protection for his or her good name. The press shall not knowingly publish matter based on malicious misrepresentation or unfounded accusations, and must take reasonable care in checking facts before publication.

Respect the individuality, dignity and inviolable privacy of people and citizens; Only when required by the right to information, they can draw on elements of the private life of individuals who perform a public function or hold a particular position, exert influence in society and are subject to public scrutiny, , always in a responsible manner;

Functionaries of the Media fully respect the principle that a person suspected or accused of having committed a crime is innocent until the contrary is proven in accordance with the law, and consequently avoid publishing anything which may lead to conclusions regarding either the guilt or innocence of suspects or accused or tends to smear their reputation or publicly humiliate them.

Sensationalism

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The Press will refrain from inappropriately sensational portrayal of violence, brutality and suffering. The Press shall respect the protection of young people.

A report is inappropriately sensational if the person it covers is reduced to an object, to a mere thing. This is particularly so if reports about a dying or physically or mentally suffering person go beyond public interest and the readers' requirement for information. When placing pictorial representations of acts of violence and accidents on front pages, the Press shall respect the possible effects on children and young people.

All screenwriting must serve the purpose of clarifying information.

The journalist must practice restraint in the selection of details and/or images for publication, even when the facts concerned strongly affect public opinion.

A journalist has to fight censorship and sensationalism

Gratuitous material designed to shock the audience is to be avoided, be it written, audio, or visual in form. If the transmission of the given information is not solvable without the publication of such contents, then the audience must be informed as to the nature of the shocking content before it is transmitted.

A journalist must not publish images and photos of people involved in daily episodes particularly terrifying, taking care to preserve people's dignity. Nor must he dwell upon details of violence or brutality, unless there is a pre-eminent reason of social interest. He must not interfere with reality to create artificial images.

The manner of informing in case of accident, elementary disaster, war, family tragedy, sickness, court procedures must be free from sensationalism.

A journalist must not unjustly create fear among people or instil false hopes. Guidelines: y A journalist who deliberately encourages unfounded fears and hopes of readers viewers listeners, especially because of the "attractiveness" of the text report, violates the Code in the most extreme manner.

Discrimination and racism

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There must be no discrimination against a person because of his/her sex, a disability or his membership of an ethnic, religious, social or national group.

The press shall not publish material intended or likely to cause grave offence or stir up hatred against an individual or group on the basis of their race, religion, nationality, colour, ethnic origin, membership of the travelling community, gender, sexual orientation, marital status, disability, illness or age.

Journalists shall mention personal characteristics only if they are relevant to the public interest. When reporting on these characteristics, journalists shall avoid stereotypes, generalisations, exaggerations and stigmatisation. They shall refrain from even indirect incitement to discrimination, racism and xenophobia.

Publications only state the ethnic origins, nationality, race, religion and sexual inclination of groups and persons if deemed required for a proper comprehension of the facts and circumstances that are reported on.

The journalist does not encourage discrimination or racism. He ensures that the wording of the reporting does not stigmatise when mentioning ethnicity, nationality, religion, philosophy, sexual orientation or gender.

A journalist must not treat people in a discriminatory way, based on their heritage, colour, ethnicity, language, place of origin, religion, political or ideological viewpoints, education, economic situation, social status, age, sex, gender, or sexual orientation.

The journalist must strictly avoid publishing offensive or otherwise extreme arguments about people or groups of people. In justified cases, the journalist might give credence to actors' own opinions of such information.

Journalists shall ensure that the dissemination of information or opinion does not contribute to hatred or prejudice and shall do their utmost to avoid facilitating the spread of discrimination on grounds such as geographical, social or ethnic origin, race, gender, sexual orientation, language, religion, disability, political and other opinions.

Sweeping statements which disparage or incite suspicion against a person or group of persons shall be strictly avoided.

Any discrimination for reasons of age, disability, sex, race, religion, nationality, sexuality, ideology or for any other reason shall be inadmissible.

Discrimination

It is not recommended to emphasise nationality, race, religious or political persuasion and gender, unless it has news value.

In society, situations of tension and conflict sometimes arise under the pressure of factors such as terrorism, discrimination against minorities, xenophobia or war. In such circumstances the media have a moral obligation to defend democratic values: respect for human dignity, solving problems by peaceful, tolerant means, and consequently to oppose violence and the language of hatred and confrontation and to reject all discrimination based on culture, sex or religion.

Journalists shall exercise their professional zeal in respect of the rights of the weakest and those discriminated against. Therefore, they shall exercise special sensitivity in cases of news or opinions of potentially discriminatory content or likely to incite violence or degrading human practices.

Journalists must therefore refrain from alluding, in a derogatory manner or with prejudice, to the race, colour, religion, social background or sex of a person or any physical or mental illness or disability suffered.

Journalists must also refrain from publishing such details, unless they are directly related to the information published.

Respect the dignity of the persons, as well as their physical and moral integrity

In his writings, a journalist must always respect a persons private life, nationality, race and religion.

A journalist has to respect people, his dignity and his right of secrecy, and he never discriminates between people according to their race, their religion, their sex, their mental and physical condition, or their political views.

A journalist cannot discriminate between people according to their race, their religion, their mental and physical conditions, or their political opinions.

Treat citizens equally, without making any discrimination as to national origin, sex, race, religion, political beliefs, economic situation and social status;

Do not emphasize ethnic origin, sex, nationality, occupation, political affiliation, religious persuasion or sexual disposition in the case of the persons concerned if this is not important in the specific context or is demeaning.

The journalist does not directly or indirectly provoke any hatred, intolerance or discrimination based primarily on race, worldview, religion, ethnic origin, age, social status, gender or sexual orientation. The journalist informs about someone's belonging to a minority only if the information is relevant in the context of the contribution.

The journalist respects other states, nations, their traditions, culture, religion or other beliefs.

A journalist shall avoid ethnic, racial, gender, age, religious, geographical, and other stereotypes, and details related to sexual orientation, disability, physical appearance, social status, or other personal circumstances of individuals and groups.

Incitement to violence, dissemination of hatred and intolerance, and other forms of hate speech are prohibited. A journalist must not permit such actions and if that is not possible, the journalist must immediately respond to or condemn such actions.

The journalist has the responsibility not to discriminate against any person on the grounds of race, ethnicity, religion, sex, age, sexual orientation, or disability, and should refrain from any instigation potentially leading to hatred and violence while attempting to state the facts or express opinions.

The press shall avoid and oppose any discrimination for reasons sex, race, nationality, language, religion, ideology, ethnicity, culture, class or beliefs, while ensuring respect for human fundamentals of the human person.

Directive - The press gives national or ethnic racial, religious a person when this is necessary for understand the facts or where there is a direct link to the information.

This article deals with direct discrimination. Remember about Article II-21 of the draft European Constitution Treaty says: "Is prohibited any discrimination based on sex, race, color, ethnic or social origin, genetic features, language, religion or belief, political or other opinion, membership of a national minority, property, birth, disability, age or sexual orientation.

There exist forms of communication, not directly incite discrimination or hatred, can help to create an atmosphere in public negative feelings towards a community. An example drawn from everyday practice is an indication of the color of skin a challenged whenever it is not white. It recommends that the press shows the racial, national or Ethnic a person when this information is necessary to understand the facts or where there is a direct link to the information. It is the same sex, language, culture, social class, disease, physical or mental disability or religious belief, political or ideological person.

Journalists, producers and the communicators of public information are forbidden to demean or mock a person's surname, race, nationality, ethnicity, religious beliefs, age, gender, sexual orientation, disability and physical shortcomings, or their physical data even if that person has committed a crime. Journalists, producers and the communicators of public information must not associate the person who is suspected, accused or has committed a crime with belonging to a certain national, ethnic or social group, or suggest that their sexual orientation is associated with the crime committed by them, nor emphasise that fact.

Special responsibility is expected when reporting or commenting on the rights, needs, problems and demands of minority social groups. Information about race, colour, religion or nationality, ae, gender, sexual orientation, gender expression, any physical or mental personality or illness, marital status, lifestyle, social status, property status or educational level, is provided by a journalist only if is highly relevant in the context in which it is presented. It is inadmissible to use stereotypes, pejorative expressions, degrading portrayal, as well as any other form of direct or indirect incitement or support for discrimination.

The Media avoid any direct or other reference or action against a person which contains elements of prejudice on the basis of race, colour, language, religion, political or other conviction, national or social origin, property, extraction, gender, age, or other personal status, including physical or mental illness or disability. Scorn, ridicule and abuse of individuals and groups are not permissible.

Any publication should refrain from specifying the origin, ethnicity, nationality, race, religion or sexual orientation of a group or an individual, unless it is deemed relevant and necessary to better understand facts and opinions presented in the publication.

The media recognize the importance of pluralism in society and respect the diversity of opinions, opposing all discrimination based on sex, race, nationality, language, religion, ideology, culture, class, conviction, or any other cause.

Media must not publish materials that incites intense hatred or violence towards individuals based on race, religion, nationality, color, ethnic origin, membership, gender, sexual orientation, civil status, disability, illness or age.

No one can be discriminated because of gender, language, race, religion or ethnic, social origin or political preferences. This information can be pointed out only if it is a necessary part of the material. A journalist should avoid offensive words and foul language, hints or comments about persons physical disabilities or diseases.

Journalists shall abide by commonly accepted social standards of decency and respect for ethnic, cultural and religious diversity of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Journalists must avoid prejudicial or insulting references to a persons ethnic group, nationality, race, religion, gender, sexual orientation, physical disability or mental disability.

References to a persons ethnic group, nationality, race, religion, gender, sexual orientation, physical disability or mental disability shall be made only when directly relevant to the occurrence being reported.

Journalists shall avoid direct or indirect comments which might place individuals in an unequal position or discriminate them based on sex, gender, sexual identity, gender identity, gender expression and/or sexual orientation.

Journalists shall at all times be aware of the danger that arises when media, through hate speech, encourage discrimination and intolerance.

Mindful of this danger, journalists shall do their utmost not to incite and/or inflame hatred and/or inequality based on ethnicity, nationality, race, religion, gender, sexual orientation, physical disability or mental disability.

Journalists shall under no circumstances incite criminal acts or violence.

In respecting human dignity, the journalist must avoid any allusion by text, image or sound to a persons ethnic or national origin, religion, gender, sexual orientation as well as to any illness or physical or mental handicap that could be discriminatory in character.

Journalists must understand the dangers of encouraging discrimination on the part of the media; therefore, he/she must exert every e?ort to avoid discrimination of any person on the basis of race, sex, sexual orientation, language, religion, political and other opinion, national or social origin, or any other grounds.

The press in Kosovo shall observe international standards of civility and respect for the ethnic, cultural and religious diversity.

The press shall do its utmost not to incite or inflame hatred or encourage discrimination by engaging in the following:na. Treat with contempt an individual or a group on the basis of ethnicity, religion, sex, race, colour, marital status, age or handicap;nb. Employ derogatory terms likely to hurt and intimidate an individual or a group on the basis of ethnicity, religion, sex, race, color, marital status, age or handicap.

Journalists and editors shall not, deliberately or by inadvertence, encourage discrimination and intolerance.

The professional activity of the journalist is incompatible with the dissemination of messages forbidden by the law (hate, homophobia, anti-Semitism or discrimination speeches) or with political propaganda, religious or election agitation activities.

The journalist treats all the persons with whom he comes in contact fairly while performing his profession and does not discriminate on such criteria as sex, age, ethnicity, disability, religion, social status, sexual orientation etc.

The journalist treats all the persons with whom he comes in contact fairly while performing his profession and does not discriminate on such criteria as sex, age, ethnicity, disability, religion, social status, sexual orientation etc.

Ones race, religion, nationality, sexual orientation and family status will be mentioned by a journalist only if that is necessary for the information.

Media institutions must not publish material that is intended or is likely to engender hostility or hatred towards persons on the grounds of their race, ethnic origins, nationality, gender, physical disabilities, religion or political affiliation. The same applies if it is highly probable that publication of a material may cause the above stated hostility and hatred

Journalists must take utmost care to avoid contributing to the spread of ethic hatred when reporting events and statements of this nature. It is journalists duty to respect other states and nations.

When reporting crimes, it is not permissible to refer to the suspects religious, ethnic or other minority membership unless this information can be justified as being relevant to the audiences understanding of the incident. In particular, it must be borne in mind that such references could stir up prejudices against groups in need of protection.

The journalists shall not consciously create or process information that jeopardize the human rights and freedoms, shall not use hate speech and shall not encourage discrimination of any sort (nationality, religion, sex, social class, language, sexual orientation, political orientation…)

The journalist shall observe the general social standards of decency and shall respect the ethnic, cultural and religious differences in the Republic of Macedonia.

Always respect a persons character and identity, privacy, ethnicity, nationality and belief..Be careful when using terms that create stigmas. Never draw attention to personal or private aspects if they are irrelevant.

Always respect a persons character and identity, privacy, ethnicity, nationality and belief..Be careful when using terms that create stigmas. Never draw attention to personal or private aspects if they are irrelevant.

Respect for human dignity means that a journalist is aware of and can professionally prevent the risk of discrimination against an individual on the grounds of their race, gender, sexual orientation, language, religion, political or other beliefs, ethnicity or social background.

The risk of discrimination. A journalist should use every endeavour to avoid even unintentional stimulation of discrimination against a person on the grounds of their race, gender, sexual orientation, language, religion, political or other beliefs, ethnicity or social background. A journalist should refrain from any derogatory innuendoes or comments about an individuals race, gender, sexual orientation, language, religion, political or other beliefs, ethnicity or social background. This kind of personal data can only be published where there is express public interest which can be clearly understood from the journalistic text.

A journalist should adhere to the professional principles, that are based on the high humanistic ideas, and respect the special character, values and achievements of each culture, including the right of each nation to freely choose and develop its political, social, economic and cultural systems.

In stressful situations which can emerge nowadays in any society under the pressure of terrorism, minority discrimination, bigotry or war, the media has a moral responsibility to protect democratic values and human dignity, encourage the search for peaceful settlement, nurture tolerance, refuse to participate in any activities stimulating intolerance in society. The media and journalists must use a professional approach in order to resist violence, hatred, confrontation, discrimination on cultural, religious and other grounds.

No one shall be condemned or humiliated because of his/her race, gender, age, health, physical and mental disability, social level and religious beliefs.

There shall be no publication limiting the freedom of thought, conscience and expression, and undermining or offending the general moral understanding, the feelings of religion

The journalist avoids publishing which is violent, hateful, tyrannical and encouraging discrimination, and harming humanitarian values.

A journalist must oppose all those who violate human rights or promote any kind of discrimination, hate speech and incitement to violence.

Journalism as a profession is incompatible with the spread of any kind of sexual, gender, ethnic, racial, social, or religious stereotypes. Prejudices that journalists have privately must not be broadcast published in any context, neither openly nor covertly.

It is unacceptable to name specific groups colloquially, in a derogatory manner and imprecisely.

In reporting crimes, national, racial, religious, ideological and political affiliation, as well as sexual orientation, social and marital status of suspects or victims, are mentioned only in case when the orientation, citizenship or status are directly related to the type and nature of a committed criminal offense.

A journalist must be aware of the danger of discrimination being spread by media and will do everything to avoid discrimination based, among other things, on race, gender, age, sexual orientation, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social belonging.

Belonging to a particular ethnic, political, ideological, or other group, as well as their marital status, religious beliefs, social belonging, is indicated only in such cases when the information is necessary for complete understanding of the context of events being reported on.

Belonging to a particular ethnic, political, ideological, or other group, as well as their marital status, religious beliefs, social belonging, is indicated only in such cases when the information is necessary for complete understanding of the context of events being reported on.

The press must avoid prejudicial or pejorative reference to an individuals, race, colour, religion, sex, gender identity, sexual orientation or to any physical or mental illness or disability.

Details of an individuals race, colour, religion, gender identity, sexual orientation, physical or mental illness or disability must be avoided unless genuinely relevant to the story.

Publishers must not make prejudicial or pejorative reference to a person on the basis of that persons age, disability, mental health, gender reassignment or identity, marital or civil partnership status, pregnancy, race, religion, sex or sexual orientation or another characteristic that makes that person vulnerable to discrimination.

Publishers must not refer to a persons disability, mental health, gender reassignment or identity, pregnancy, race, religion or sexual orientation unless this characteristic is relevant to the story.

Publishers must not incite hatred against any group on the basis of that groups age, disability, mental health, gender reassignment or identity, marital or civil partnership status, pregnancy, race, religion, sex or sexual orientation or another characteristic that makes that group vulnerable to discrimination.

Fairness in gathering information

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Dishonest methods must not be used to acquire person-related news, information or photographs.

Journalists must, as a fundamental principle, identify themselves as such. Untrue statements by a journalist about his/her identity and their publication when doing research work are fundamentally irreconcilable with the standing and function of the Press.

Undercover research may be justifiable in individual cases if in this way information of particular public interest is gained which cannot be procured by other means.

Readers are entitled to expect that the content of the press reflects the best judgment of editors and writers and has not been inappropriately influenced by undisclosed interests. Wherever relevant, any significant financial interest of an organization should be disclosed. Writers should disclose significant potential conflicts of interest to their editors.

The press shall strive at all times for fair procedures and honesty in the procuring and publishing of news and information.

Journalists shall use fair methods to collect and process information, photos, images and documents.

Journalists must refrain from publishing pictures and broadcasting images of persons in generally non-public areas without their permission, or using letters and personal notes without the permission from those involved.*

Journalists must introduce themselves to potential discussion partners in their capacity as journalists and be clear to them about their journalist intentions. They also do that when accessing non-public areas.

Journalists do not steal information, nor will they pay for stolen information.

The journalist is duty bound to respect human rights and to self-impose high standards regards to: (I) to report information truthfully and faithfully (II) gathering and sharing information independently (III) to be fair

There may be a reason why the journalist does not want to make himself known, or the purpose of his presence. That may be done in various ways, on certain conditions.

The journalist should respect the suffering of victims and of their relatives. He must not behave inappropriately in his acquisition of the facts.

A journalist has to use legal means in obtaining information, pictures or documents, and must avoid abusing anyones trust. The identification of oneself as a journalist is a rule, the breaking of which is permissible only on the grounds of an unquestionable public interest and after verifying the impossibility of obtaining relevant information through normal processes.

Journalists must behave as journalists under all circumstances. Therefore, the journalists need to inform the source as to why they need the information, when, and in what format this information is expected to be published. It is the responsibility of the journalist to inform his or her source of these rules. The only exception can be if the journalist cannot fulfil the requirement of conscientious dissemination of information in any other way, and the importance of the case involved justifies the exception.

The journalist shall use only fair methods to obtain information, images, documents and data and he/she will always report his/her status as a journalist and will refrain from using hidden recordings of images and sounds, except where it is impossible for him/her to collect information that is overwhelmingly in the public interest.

Not to use unfair methods to obtain news, photographs or documents;

Outlaws any unfair or corrupt method of obtaining information. In the event that his own safety, that of his sources or the seriousness of the facts obliges him to conceal his role as a journalist, he must inform his line management accordingly and provide the public with an explanation as soon as possible;

No unfair or improper methods shall be used in obtaining oral or procuring written evidence.

In some cases undercover investigations and the associated actions deemed necessary are permitted, provided that the method of the recherch is appropriate and the gathered information is in the public interest.

We shall gather information by fair and legal means.

We shall only make use of subterfuge, hidden cameras, microphones, and other special equipment or means, including obscuring our professional identity, if there are no other means to obtain information deemed exceptionally important to the public interest; we shall indicate such methods in the respective story.

When conducting interviews, journalists must always identify themselves and the media outlet they represent. It is also recommended that the journalist specify the intended use of the information being gathered.

In the journalist's profession the end does not justify the means; therefore information must be obtained by legal and ethical means.

journalists shall use justifiable methods to obtain news, which excludes unlawful procedures.

the right of natural and legal persons not to provide information, or answer questions they are asked, without prejudice to their professional duty to address the rights of citizens to information.

Use legitimate and worthy methods to obtain information

It is worthwhile consenting to interviewee's requests to read their statements prior to publication, if the editorial deadline permits. This right only concerns the personal statements of the interviewee, and the final journalistic decision cannot be surrendered to any party outside the editorial office.

The interviewee's refusal to allow the publishing of his/her statement must be complied with only if the circumstances following the interview have changed so significantly that the publication of the interview could be viewed as unjust.

A journalist respects the right of secrecy of every person, and he cannot publish news of their private life, unless they are transparent and of relevant public interest. However, he always makes his identity and profession known when he collects such news.

Gather and cross-check information and ensure its substantiation (documents, photographs, cassettes, television images) by applying legitimate methods compliant with journalistic ethics, always disclosing their journalistic identity;

When collecting materials, illegal and ethically reprehensible methods must not be used; hidden cameras and microphones or telephone wiretapping are permissible only in the case of investigative journalism, i.e. tracking of crimes, corruption, or abuse of power, on behalf of the public good and with the knowledge and consent of the journalist's superiors.

Under the circumstances listed below, the journalist may also use exceptional means in his work. These are: a) using secret ways of collecting information, including a hidden camera or microphone, b) using concealed and confidential sources, c) disclosing unverified information, d) disclosing information from the privacy of individuals who are not publicly active and their privacy is otherwise protected.

Extraordinary means of journalistic work can be used only if their use is directed to the fulfilment of an important public interest and the public interest could not otherwise be achieved.

Extraordinary means of journalistic work can be used only if their use is directed to the fulfilment of an important public interest and the public interest could not otherwise be achieved.

The use of extraordinary means of journalistic work must be adequately explained to recipients when publishing the text or broadcasting the program in which they were used.

A journalist must not use illicit means of collecting information. If the information which is of the utmost importance to the public cannot be obtained otherwise, the journalist's actions as well as the reasons for them must be presented to the public.

A journalist must always be introduced as a journalist and explain the purpose of the journalist's collecting data. The status of a journalist can only be withheld if the journalist tried to obtain information that serves the public interest but could not obtain said information while declaring the journalist status.

A journalist can record audio or video, and take pictures only after the consent of the person being recorded or photographed has been given. The consent can also be tacit (e.g., if the person does not object). Under exceptional circumstances, a journalist can record and take pictures without consent if the journalist reasonably believes that, by doing so, the journalist shall uncover information that serves the public interest. The reasons for the journalist's decision must be explained in the article.

The journalist shall obtain information in an open and transparent manner. The use of special investigative techniques is justified when obtaining that information would serve the public interest and when information cannot be obtained by any other means. It is recommended that the use of special investigation techniques be explicitly mentioned when publishing the respective information.

Journalists and editors are committed to avoid work anonymously or any use of other illegal and reprehensible methods to obtain information, sounds, images or documents. They undertake not to practice investigation under cover when the scale of the information justifies it and information can not be obtained otherwise.

Directive - In some cases journalists can use illegal methods to obtain the information they seek: false identity, microphones and cameras hidden inaccuracies in the intentions of the story, shadowing, infiltration. The use of such means must remain exceptional. Journalists will use them when the following conditions are met:

* The information sought is a public interest, for example in when it comes to updating socially reprehensible actions;

* Information can not reasonably be obtained or verified by other means, or they have been used without success;

* Interest to the public outweigh the disadvantages that can be caused to individuals.

The public will be informed of the use of these means. (Adopted in plenary meeting of 28 March 2006)

c) Some codes of conduct are limited to say the ban unfair use ie work under cover for information. If this rule is applicable in most of journalistic work, it can not however be absolute. The scandal of 'Watergate', to take one example most spectacular in the history of journalism, would never come to the public knowledge without the use of non-conventional methods. But in many cases, these practices are necessary for many other subjects such as investigations in the consumer interest (test-purchases, eg). The chosen article thus serves to educate the journalist not to abuse these methods, while leaving him the right to the range of methods when interest public demands. Press inform the public use of these means in accordance with the principle of protection of sources and taking into account the interest of the public to be informed the status of the species.

Information must be collected and published in an ethical and legitimate manner only.

When asking for information, the journalists, producers and communicators of public information must introduce themselves by their first and last name, as well as stating which mass media they represent and warning the person that their words may be published in the mass media.

When letters of a personal nature are published, the consent of the author and the addressee of the letter must be obtained. Such consent may be given by the spouses, parents or children after the death of the said persons.

A journalist must not abuse the trust established with the source of information.

When collecting information, a journalist may not use methods contrary to this Code unless there is no other way to obtain information of extreme public interest.

Authorization only means the authentication of the content of the interview. Interview equipment is not subject to authorization. Once authorized, the interview is considered final.

including the taking of pictures of people without their knowledge or consent, unless they are involved in events which constitute news of general interest, or on private property and

also the gathering of information through bugging devices or long lens photography, are generally unacceptable and their publication can only be justified in exceptional cases an solely in the public interest.

Functionaries of the Media should not, as a general rule, try to secure information or images/photographs through false representation or any other fraudulent manner.

Journalists will use fair methods in the collection of information. They only make use of subterfuge, hidden cameras, microphones or

other special equipment, or obscure their professional identity, in circumstances where:

a) There is no other means to obtain the information concerned

b) The information is of urgent and serious concern to the public

Journalists shall indicate when such methods have been used in the story or provide disclosure when circumstances permit.

To avoid the use of covert and secret methods of obtaining information, except when traditional open methods do not ensure receipt of information of public interest. The need for such methods must be explained and justified in the actual publication;

In some cases undercover investigations and the associated actions deemed necessary are permitted, provided that the method of the recherch is appropriate and the gathered information is in the public interest.

To ensure that the reports, photo, video and audio materials correspond to the reality, the headlines derive from the content of the material, citations are not used outside of context, and correspondence of the personal data of ordinary citizens with public figures is not abused;

A journalist must not use illegal methods of gathering information. While gathering information a journalist works within the Ukrainian legal framework and can use all legal procedures, including court procedures against those who prevent him (her) from gathering information. The use of secret ways of information gathering is acceptable only in cases when it provides accuracy and trustworthiness of the material. These ways can only be justified when other ways of gathering information are impossible to fulfill.

A journalist must not use illegal methods of gathering information. While gathering information a journalist works within the Ukrainian legal framework and can use all legal procedures, including court procedures against those who prevent him (her) from gathering information. The use of secret ways of information gathering is acceptable only in cases when it provides accuracy and trustworthiness of the material. These ways can only be justified when other ways of gathering information are impossible to fulfill.

Journalists shall use only fair means to obtain news, documents and/or photographs. Jour

It is unethical to misrepresent ones identity or intentions, and to use subterfuge to obtain information for publication, except in the most extreme circumstances, and in a lawful manner, when the publication of thus obtained information would clearly serve the public interest.

The journalist who gathers, selects, edits, interprets and comments on information is ruled by general principles of fairness in his or her honest treatment of sources (the people with whom he or she is talking) and the public.

Journalists must only rely on scrupulous and fair methods when collecting information, photo materials, or documents.

Journalists must only rely on scrupulous and fair methods when collecting information, photo materials, or documents.

While collecting information, the journalist usually identifies his name and the media outlet he represents, as applicable, warning the source that the information provided thereby may be made public. As a rule, the journalist warns his interlocutor if the discussion is recorded.

The use of special techniques of investigative reporting (hidden video camera, hidden microphone etc.) is justified only when there is a public interest in place and when the information cannot be obtained through other means.

The use of special investigative techniques must be mentioned explicitly when publishing the information.

Protect the sources of the press. The protection of sources is a basic principle in a free society and is a prerequisite for the ability of the press to fulfil its duties towards society and ensure the access to essential information.

In consideration of the sources and the independence of the press, unpublished material as a main rule should not be divulged to third parties.

collect information by only using honest approaches and methods;

A journalist may not unreasonably (i.e. without the signs of express or overwhelming public interest) spy on an object of their professional interest; a journalist should receive consent for taking pictures of and/or filming a person at all times, except when such person is in a public place.

A journalist is obliged to present themself to a source of information and name a media they work for at that moment, except if doing differently is in the public interest and when it is done in accordance with the rules set out in this Code.

False impersonation and false identification of the media a journalist works for is not permitted. Journalists on assignment must not present themselves as persons who have special powers, business people or "ordinary citizens".

Concealing the identity of a journalist can be used only as the final means to obtain information: if other methods have been unsuccessfully applied, if the information cannot be obtained in any other way, and only when it relates to information of great importance to the public.

In case of concealing the journalists' identity, it is necessary that the editorial board is informed, and it is recommended to consult legal advisors for possible legal consequences.

While collecting information, photos, documents, audio and video a journalist will only utilise honourable means.

A journalist/an editor must not sell documents, audio/video, books and other materials received for the purpose of media coverage. These materials should not be shared with other media without the consent of the source of information.

It is recommended that materials obtained from the source of information remain in possession of the editorial staff or the medias documentation centre the journalist editor reports for.

The press must not seek to obtain or publish material acquired by using hidden cameras or clandestine listening devices; or by intercepting private or mobile telephone calls, messages or emails; or by the unauthorised removal of documents or photographs; or by accessing digitally-held information without consent.

Engaging in misrepresentation or subterfuge, including by agents or intermediaries, can generally be justified only in the public interest and then only when the material cannot be obtained by other means.

Always identify themselves as journalists and provide the name of their publication when making contact;

Except where justified by the public interest, publishers must: a. Not use covert means to gain or record information

Collecting information in hospitals

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Restrictions on the invasion of privacy shall be observed with particular care if people have been admitted to hospitals or similar institutions.

Investigations or the taking and publishing of picturesimages of persons in hospitals or in other similar institutions are carried out discreetly and after permission has been obtained where this is indicated and after the identity of functionaries of the Mass Communication Media has been duly stated.

Journalists must identify themselves and obtain permission from a responsible executive before entering non-public areas of hospitals or similar institutions to pursue enquiries.

The restrictions on intruding into privacy are particularly relevant to enquiries about individuals in hospitals or similar institutions.

Deceit and undercover methods

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The press shall not obtain information, photographs or other material through misrepresentation or subterfuge, unless justified by the public interest.

Undercover research may only be used where other methods have failed to yield information of particular public interest. These methods may thus be employed where, for example, they will help to detect or expose criminal activity, abuse of power, or will bring to light information that will protect the public against serious threats to public health and safety and the environment.

Except where justified by the public interest, publishers must ensure that journalists: a. Do not engage in deception;

Gathering information in public space

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It is generally acceptable to cover and photograph any event that happens in a public place without having to obtain permission from the subject(s) in question.

"Sudden" use of cameras in public or institutions should respect the desire and sensitivity of the present persons.

Harassment of people by journalists

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Journalists and photographers must not obtain, or seek to obtain, information and photographs through harassment, unless their actions are justified in the public interest.

Journalists must refrain from bothering, persistently following or tailing persons for prolonged periods of time.

The journalist cannot provide or promise publicity or special evaluation, or defend anyone in exchange for information.

Unfair or improper methods shall include misrepresentation, pressure, intimidation, exploitation of emotional or stressful situations and, as a rule, the use of wiretapping or bugging equipment.

We shall not use threats, force, or harassment to obtain information or images.

In order to obtain information, the journalists, producers and communicators of public information must not pressure the source of information, nor shall they offer to pay for it or abuse their public status and professional capacities.

Attempts to extort information through intimidation, threats, blackmail and other forms of coercion are unacceptable.

Functionaries do not obtain or try to obtain information or imagesphotographs through intimidation or blackmail.

Journalists and photographers shall not obtain information and/or pictures through intimidation or harassment.

While collecting information, the journalist should not abuse of his social status or of his professional opportunities, exert pressure on the sources, promise or offer them any compensationsfavors.

While collecting information a journalist must not use extortion, threats and persecution against the source of information. Guidelines: y Besides the fact that they must not threaten the sources of information, journalists should not promise a favourable coverage in exchange for information.

A journalist should not continue asking questions, phoning, photographing or recording a private person after they were asked to stop.

Pressure on a private person to answer any questions can be continued after the rejection, but only on condition that there is a grounded public interest at stake.

Journalists must not engage in intimidation, harassment or persistent pursuit.

They must not persist in questioning, telephoning, pursuing or photographing individuals once asked to desist; nor remain on property when asked to leave and must not follow them. If requested, they must identify themselves and whom they represent.

Editors must ensure these principles are observed by those working for them and take care not to use non-compliant material from other sources.

Publishers must ensure that journalists do not engage in intimidation.

Making recordings

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Journalists are free to record telephone conversations without notifying their discussion partner thereof. If they, in the interest of their publication, deem it necessary to partly or fully transmit a recorded telephone conversation, they must notify their discussion partner thereof, prior to publication.

Working with hidden cameras and microphones or with rolling cameras and active microphones is permitted if required in order to investigate malpractices.

Unfair or improper methods shall include misrepresentation, pressure, intimidation, exploitation of emotional or stressful situations and, as a rule, the use of wiretapping or bugging equipment.

We shall only make use of subterfuge, hidden cameras, microphones, and other special equipment or means, including obscuring our professional identity, if there are no other means to obtain information deemed exceptionally important to the public interest; we shall indicate such methods in the respective story.

A journalist shall use honest means of obtaining audio or video recordings and information, with the exception of cases where the public has a right to know information that cannot be obtained in an honest way.

Clandestine recordings should only be published if the persons involved have given their consent, or if the interests of society clearly supersede the claim for protection of the individual and it is not possible, or only possible with great difficulty, to obtain the necessary journalistic evidence in any other way.

The journalist acquires text, audio, audiovisual and image recordings and backgrounds for articles and other works in a way that it is clear that he or she is a journalist and does not hide his or her full name or belonging to a specific medium. The journalist notices the respondent before recording the phone call if this is not the situation described in Article V, point 9.

A journalist must inform the interlocutor if the conversation is being recorded.

To avoid the use of covert and secret methods of obtaining information, except when traditional open methods do not ensure receipt of information of public interest. The need for such methods must be explained and justified in the actual publication;

As a rule, the journalist warns his interlocutor if the discussion is recorded.

Hidden camerasmicrophones or false identity may only be used under special circumstances. The condition must be that such a method is the only possible way to uncover cases of essential importance to society.

Journalists and editors must not publish material acquired by using hidden cameras, listening devices, or unauthorised wiretapping, except when the public interest is protected (for example: disclosure of information regarding the threat to life and health of the population, corruption, abuse of power, etc.).

For the application of this exception there must be a clearly defined and transparent editorial procedure.

Payment of sources

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Journalists do not pay witnesses and informers; a reasonable reimbursement of expenses can be acceptable.

Information is not to be paid for*. One can only pay for the exclusivity of images or interviews on the condition that the freedom of information is not thereby jeopardized.

We shall not pay sources for information, but where payment is considered necessary in order to obtain information that clearly serves the public interest, we shall make known that payments have been made for such information.

Paying sources for information goes against the good journalistic practice and it is inadmissible when it endangers the principle of truthfulness or when it is likely to interfere with the action of Justice.

A journalist shall avoid paying for information.

In order to obtain information, the journalists, producers and communicators of public information must not pressure the source of information, nor shall they offer to pay for it or abuse their public status and professional capacities.

Paying to obtain information and cooperating with a source expecting payment, or any other favours in exchange for information, is only permissible if it is the only way of obtaining information of exceptional public interest.

Journalists do not accept gifts in connection with their function. Save in exceptional cases covered by public interest, functionaries do not pay out or bribe witnesses in criminal cases or persons involved in criminal cases, including members of their families, with the aim of obtaining information or imagesphotographs.

The journalist does not accept to collect public interest information from its holders for money or for other benefits.

Journalists must not pay people to act as information sources unless there is demonstrable public interest value in the information.

Be critical in the choice of sources, and make sure that the information provided is correct. It is good press practice to aim for diversity and relevance in the choice of sources. If anonymous sources are used, or the publication is offered exclusivity, especially stringent requirements must be imposed on the critical evaluation of the sources. Particular caution should be exercised when dealing with information from anonymous sources, information from sources offering exclusivity, and information provided from sources in return for payment.

Gathering information by bribing sources is incompatible with journalism.

i) No payment or offer of payment to a witness – or any person who may reasonably be expected to be called as a witness – should be made in any case once proceedings are active as defined by the Contempt of Court Act 1981. This prohibition lasts until the suspect has been freed unconditionally by police without charge or bail or the proceedings are otherwise discontinued; or has entered a guilty plea to the court; or, in the event of a not guilty plea, the court has announced its verdict.

*ii) Where proceedings are not yet active but are likely and foreseeable, editors must not make or offer payment to any person who may reasonably be expected to be called as a witness, unless the information concerned ought demonstrably to be published in the public interest and there is an over-riding need to make or promise payment for this to be done; and all reasonable steps have been taken to ensure no financial dealings influence the evidence those witnesses give. In no circumstances should such payment be conditional on the outcome of a trial.

*iii) Any payment or offer of payment made to a person later cited to give evidence in proceedings must be disclosed to the prosecution and defence. The witness must be advised of this requirement.

i) Payment or offers of payment for stories, pictures or information, which seek to exploit a particular crime or to glorify or glamorise crime in general, must not be made directly or via agents to convicted or confessed criminals or to their associates – who may include family, friends and colleagues.

Editors invoking the public interest to justify payment or offers would need to demonstrate that there was good reason to believe the public interest would be served. If, despite payment, no public interest emerged, then the material should not be published.

Publishers must not make payments, or offer to make payments, to witnesses or defendants in criminal proceedings, except as permitted by law

Except where justified by an exceptional public interest, publishers must not pay public officials for information.

Stating journalistic intention

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If journalists want to interview someone, they must inform him or her of the nature of the publication, thereby enabling the interviewee to make an informed decision as to whether he or she wants to cooperate with that publication.

In acquiring information, a journalist must make the purpose of his work known. He informs his interlocutor so that the interlocutor has enough information to decide whether or not he wishes to cooperate with the publication or broadcast.*

The journalist and the interviewee consider the interview as a conversation for public disclosure, not as a private talk.

When conducting interviews, journalists must always identify themselves and the media outlet they represent. It is also recommended that the journalist specify the intended use of the information being gathered.

Interviewees have the right to know in advance the context in which their statements will be used. They must also be told if the interview will be used in multiple mediums. The interviewee must always be told whether the conversation is intended for publication or will be used exclusively as background material.

When asking for information, the journalists, producers and communicators of public information must introduce themselves by their first and last name, as well as stating which mass media they represent and warning the person that their words may be published in the mass media.

Fairness towards interviewees

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Interviewees have the right to know in advance the context in which their statements will be used. They must also be told if the interview will be used in multiple mediums. The interviewee must always be told whether the conversation is intended for publication or will be used exclusively as background material.

Interviewees should be informed about the use of their statements; permission is required from the interviewee if the interviewee restricts the use of their statements;

The legal person or natural person providing the information to the journalist must be informed by the journalist in what medium and in what context will this information be published.

A person being interviewed has the right to know in which medium and in what connection statements will be used.

2.6. To respect rights of interviewee in regard to the text of the interview, as its coauthor.

Not to use dishonest methods to obtain information, recordings, images or documents.

In the case of advanced reports of an interview in abridged form, care must be taken that abridgement does not stand out from contents of program context that is abridged. In this case as well, care must be taken to protect the interviewee against any distortions or impairments, which may jeopardize his or her dignity or legitimate interests.

An interview is completely journalistically correct if the interviewee or his/her representative has authorized it, or if it is obvious that there is interviewees approval for the intention to publish unauthorized interview. If time is short, it is also correct to publish statements in unauthorized interview form if it is clear to both the interviewer and the interviewee that the statements are to be published either verbatim or as an edited version. If the text of an interview is reproduced in full or in part, the publication concerned must state its source. If the basic content of verbally expressed thoughts is paraphrased, it is nonetheless a matter of journalistic honor to state the source.

Good press conduct requires clarification of the terms on which an interview is being carried out. This also pertains to adjacent research. Any agreement regarding quote check should be made in advance of the interview, and it should be made clear what the agreement includes and what deadlines apply. The editors decide for themselves what should finally be published.

Honoring agreements

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Journalists shall not make any commitment to any interlocutor which might jeopardise their independence. However, they shall respect the methods of dissemination that they have freely accepted, such as embargoes, 'off', anonymity, etc. These commitments must be clear and indisputable.

The journalist may not make any arrangements with sources or other persons that jeopardize his independence. However, arrangements made must be kept, particularly regarding the naming of names or the prior inspection of texts. It is exactly for this reason that agreements must be clear and unambiguous.

If the journalist reaches an agreement with a source on the way in which he may cite the source, it is useful to use the terms 'on the record' and 'off the record', so that it is as clear as possible what is being agreed upon.

Journalists must strictly keep any promises made to their sources and must avoid making promises they may not be able to keep.

the journalist shall respect the off the record rule if it has been expressly invoked or it is concluded that such was the will of the informant.

Good journalistic practice requires also an appropriately treatment of the information received under embargo, as well as to respect the off the record agreement.

Respect the standards of off-the-record information insofar as they have undertaken such commitment;

The journalist is not obliged to accede to a request from the respondent for additional correction, non-disclosure or non-broadcast of information obtained in accordance with this Code of Ethics as long the respondent has previously agreed to the disclosure. In justified cases, the journalist may accept an agreement on its subsequent authorization before the interview starts. If the respondent requests an authorization, the journalist is required to inform him or her that it is possible to edit only the respondent's direct citations, and it is not possible to change meanings of the answers or remove the answers which have been mentioned in the original interview. The authorization of a record or text shall be limited solely to the statements made by the respondent himself or herself. The journalist shall not accept an agreement that would allow the respondent to agree to use his or her statement only in the context of the entire program or article.

Journalists are not obliged to offer text authorisation to an interviewee. If, in agreement with the editors, authorisation is granted, the interviewee has no right to change the journalists' questions, the meaning and context of the answers.

Embargoes

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In principle, the Press does not accept news 'blackouts'. Co-ordination between the media and the police shall occur only if the action of journalists can protect or save the life and health of victims and other involved persons. The Press shall comply with police requests for a partial or total news embargo for a certain period of time in the interest of solving crime, if the request is justified convincingly.

Reporting can be the subject of an embargo. In this case a source disclosed information itself, but asks in return a deal on the moment of publication. When a journalist agrees to such an embargo, he adheres to it. An embargo is no longer binding when the information is known through another source.

The journalist will not undertake any activity or engagement likely to put his/her independence in danger. He/she will, however, respect the methods of collection/dissemination of information that he/she has freely accepted, such as "off the record", anonymity, or embargo, provided that these commitments are clear and unquestionable.

Good journalistic practice requires also an appropriately treatment of the information received under embargo, as well as to respect the off the record agreement.

Journalists who agree not to publish a piece of information or material for a given period of time must respect these arrangements. Such an agreement (embargo) should be considered null and void if the information is published by another party, or when the person who requested the embargo in any way violates terms and conditions of the agreement reached between parties.

The imposition of embargoes during which the publication of certain information is held over is justifiable only if it is vital for objective and careful reporting. In principle, embargoes are a free agreement between informants and the media. Embargoes should be observed only if there is an objectively justifiable reason, such as in the case of speeches still to be held, advance copies of company reports and other types of activities or information on a future event (meetings, resolutions, honors, ceremonies, etc.). Embargoes must not be used for taking advantage over competition.

Exclusivity contracts

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It is standard practice for journalists to publish exclusive information and stories. Such stories should be created by research and not by seeking monopolies of information within public authorities. Public authorities should disseminate their information without favoring a limited number of media houses.

The press shall protect the freedom of speech, the freedom of the press and the principle of access to official documents. It cannot yield to any pressure from anybody who might want to prevent open debates, the free flow of information and free access to sources. Agreements concerning exclusive event reporting shall not preclude independent news reporting.

Pre-publication review

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Journalists who give the subject of the article the opportunity to inspect the article in advance - in order to correct factual misstatements and remove any lack of clarity - are free to decide how to incorporate comments in the article.

The journalist is not obliged to accede to a request from the respondent for additional correction, non-disclosure or non-broadcast of information obtained in accordance with this Code of Ethics as long the respondent has previously agreed to the disclosure. In justified cases, the journalist may accept an agreement on its subsequent authorization before the interview starts. If the respondent requests an authorization, the journalist is required to inform him or her that it is possible to edit only the respondent's direct citations, and it is not possible to change meanings of the answers or remove the answers which have been mentioned in the original interview. The authorization of a record or text shall be limited solely to the statements made by the respondent himself or herself. The journalist shall not accept an agreement that would allow the respondent to agree to use his or her statement only in the context of the entire program or article.

Journalists, producers and the communicators of public information are not obliged to coordinate the final variation of their work with the person who has provided the information.

In the interests of fairness and accuracy journalists may show their news stories to interested parties prior to publication, but they shall not grant a veto on the right to publish and shall be free to decide for themselves on what suggestions they should take under consideration.

An interview is completely journalistically correct if the interviewee or his/her representative has authorized it, or if it is obvious that there is interviewees approval for the intention to publish unauthorized interview. If time is short, it is also correct to publish statements in unauthorized interview form if it is clear to both the interviewer and the interviewee that the statements are to be published either verbatim or as an edited version. If the text of an interview is reproduced in full or in part, the publication concerned must state its source. If the basic content of verbally expressed thoughts is paraphrased, it is nonetheless a matter of journalistic honor to state the source.

Secrecy agreements

Addictions and substance abuse

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Press stories must not play down drug abuse.

Information promoting or attractively depicting the acts of smoking, heavy drinking, abuse of drugs or other intoxicating substances and gambling must also not be published.

Children

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In particular with regard to reporting on crimes and accidents, as a rule the identification of children and young people is inadmissible before completion of their 18th year.

The press shall take particular care in seeking and presenting information or comment about a child under the age of 16.

Journalists and editors should have regard for the vulnerability of children, and in all dealings with children should bear in mind the age of the child, whether parental or other adult consent has been obtained for such dealings, the sensitivity of the subject-matter, and what circumstances if any make the story one of public interest. Young people should be free to complete their time at school without unnecessary intrusion. The fame, notoriety or position of a parent or guardian must not be used as sole justification for publishing details of a child's private life.

Journalists take into account the particular vulnerability of certain groups, such as children (minors) and people with intellectual disabilities.

The codes applies fully to minors. However, as minors are in a specific position, herewith are some guidelines on press dealings with minors.

Journalists must not identify minors, indirectly or directly, whether they be sources, witnesses of news events, witnesses of newsworthy events, victims, or perpetrators of acts that the law qualifies as a crime.

The victims of crimes and accidents are entitled to a defence. Special proceedings must take place if the victim is a minor.

In the case of children, protection of the individual's privacy shall take precedence over the news value.

Before pictures and reports about juveniles are published, special critical consideration shall be given to the question of whether such publication is in the public interest.

Journalists shall exercise particular caution in interviewing and photographing children and in reporting about matters which might have a detrimental influence on their future.

We shall demonstrate special responsibility in respecting the rights of children, including their right to be heard.

We shall not take advantage of a child's innocence and trust.

We shall not publish information or photographs about the private life of a child unless there is an overriding circumstance serving the public interest.

We shall protect the identity of children involved in or affected by tragedy or criminal activity when identifying them under such circumstances may harm them.

We shall seek to avoid interviewing children without the consent of an adult in charge.

Minors shall be interviewed, as a general rule, only in the presence of or with the consent of the parent or guardian. Exceptions can be made to this rule if the interview is intended to protect the interests of the child or if the child is already under close public attention.

Special attention shall be paid to the coverage of matters affecting children and young people and the right to privacy of minors shall be respected.

The criteria indicated in the above two principles shall be applied with extreme rigour when the coverage may affect minors. In particular, the journalist shall refrain from interviewing, photographing or recording minors with regard to matters relating to criminal activities or those which can be considered to fall within the field of privacy.

Spreading the identity of minors should be avoided when they appear as victims (except in the case of murder and cases of kidnappings or disappearances), witnesses or suspects. This consideration is particularly relevant in matters of special social significance, such as sex abuse, suicides, problems related to adoptions or children of incarcerated parents. Besides, the journalists should avoid identifying against their will innocent relatives or other close people of accused or convicted persons in criminal proceedings.

As a general rule, children should not be interviewed nor photographed or filmed without the explicit consent of their parents, legal guardians, teachers or educators. It is also not fair to allege the public relevance of relatives or close people to justify the interference in the children's private life or the exploitation of their image.

The right to privacy also applies when publishing public documents or other public sources. The public availability of information does not necessarily imply that it can be freely published. Particular discretion should be used when an issue concerns minors.

Special regard should be paid to children and other persons who cannot be expected to realise the effects of their statements or other involvement. Parental consent should be obtained before the publication of interviews or the like when indicated by the nature of the subject and the minor's age.

Respect the protection of minors and individuals with special needs and serious health problems, as such is provided for by international conventions;

childrens statements may only be used with the consent of their parents or legal guardians.

The journalist uses children and adolescents as a source of information only in exceptional cases with particular regard to their moral and emotional development.

A journalist must show special consideration when publishing photographs or recordings, collecting information, and reporting about children and minors, persons with developmental, physical, and mental disabilities, and members of other vulnerable groups.

In the articles on sexual abuses and family tragedies, a journalist shall not disclose the identities of victims and their family members, and the identities of offenders shall not be disclosed when that action would disclose the identities of the victims. The same shall apply for articles on other criminal offences when minors are included in them. Identities can be disclosed provided there is consent from the adult victims.

The journalist has the responsibility to bear in mind the legitimate interest of the minor. The journalist shall protect the identity of minors involved in crimes, whether as victims or perpetrators, unless the public interest requires that they be identified in order to protect the best interests of the minor, or at the express request of the parents or legal representatives.

The press agrees to give the utmost attention to the protection of minors. It is committed to avoid intrusion may harm their development without prejudice to the legal provisions in force.

The legislature, in various related laws, grants special protection to minors, so as not to jeopardize their social development and family. Journalistic ethics also requires compliance

with specific tags in the collection, processing and dissemination of information on minors, specifically regarding their identification.

When the press considers it appropriate to inform the public about legal issues minors, it shall not publish any mention clean to allow identification, whether they are involved as accused, victims or witnesses of traumatic events.

Outside the judicial context, the media and journalists should also be guided in the exercise of their professional responsibilities by the principle of respect the anonymity of youth, including security and development could be compromised. Thus, the press should refrain from giving details that allow the identification of young stigmatized, whether as victims, third innocent or because they live in serious personal difficulties. The law in Articles 18 and 19 on certain provisions of the protection of minors.

Journalists, producers and the communicators of public information must take care of the protection of minors from any adverse effects of the public information, and not cause any grief or fear to minors by the information that they publish.

A journalist must not interview or photograph a child (up to 14 years old) without his or her consent and without the presence and consent of the parent or other adult responsible for the child. Even if such consent exists, it is inadmissible to interview or photograph a child if that could jeopardize his or her well-being. The same applies to any other procedure which directly or indirectly reveals the identity of a child. The welfare of the child is superior to the public interest

A journalist may not disclose the identity of a child or a minor involved in sexual abuse or any other form of violence or crime, whether the child or minor is a witness, victim, suspect or defendant. Media coverage of such cases should not allow the identification of a child or a minor. The identity of a child or minor may only be disclosed exceptionally when it is in the public interest and does not jeopardize the welfare of the child or minor, and with the consent of the parent or guardian of the child or minor, or when required for the welfare of the child by government bodies.

Especially, in cases involving children the following apply:

The identity of children under 16 who are complainants, witnesses of accused in cases of sexual offences is never revealed.

The term 'incest' is not used and the charge is described as a serious offence against children, or given any other suitable description.

No reference, either direct or indirect, is made to family or any other relationship between the accused and the child.

As a general rule, functionaries of the Media do not interview and do not photograph children under 16 in connection with matters relating to their personal situation or welfare without parental consent or the consent of an adult being responsible for them.

The Media an their functionaries must comply with the provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child.

Media shall exercise particular care in dealing with sources who are members of vulnerable groups, such as children and young people, victims of violence or minorities.

14. Protection of Children and People with Limited Abilities

A journalist shall respect all principles confirmed in International Conventions on the Rights of the Child and Albanian legislation on child protection and persons with limited abilities.

A journalist protects the rights and dignity of children and people with limited abilities, including their right to be heard.

As a general rule, there is no objection to the publication of photographs and names of missing young persons but theses shall only be published with the agreement of the relevant authorities or responsible adults.

Journalists shall not take advantage of childrens innocence and trust and will publish information or images about the private life of a child only if there is an overriding public interest.

Journalists shall not normally interview children under 18 on personal issues in the absence of parents or responsible persons.

To be especially tactful when the sources of information or the heroes of publications are children or minors. Be careful when disclosing the identity of juvenile detainees, defendants, convicts and victims of sexual crimes;

When preparing materials concerninginvolving children follow the Principles and Guidelines for Ethical Reporting on Children, developed by UNICEF media group;

Obtain permission from the child and his/her guardian for all interviews, videotaping and for documentary photographs. When possible and appropriate, this permission should be in writing. Permission must be obtained in circumstances that ensure that the child and guardian are not coerced in any way and that they understand that they are part of a story that might be disseminated locally and globally. During the interview do not harm to any child, do not reactivate a childs pain and grief from traumatic events. Do not make him/her saying or doing things merely aimed at getting a strong image or impressive reportage;

A journalist has to be especially careful covering issues connected to children. A journalist and editor must have valid reasons to cover the private life of minors and permission from his (her) parents or guardians. It is inadmissible to uncover the names of minors (or other features of recognition), who became participants of events, connected to crime or violence.

When treating children and minors, journalists have the obligation to be extremely careful, respecting ethical norms and the Convention on Childrens Rights, starting with the childs interest. Journalists are obligated to protect the childs identity in procedures not involving the public.

Journalists shall not interview or photograph children under the age of 18, regarding matters involving the childs family, in the absence of or without the consent of a parent or guardian. Journalists shall not identify children under the age of 18 when they are victims of crimes.

Journalists must not, under any circumstances, identify children under the age of 18 who are involved in criminal cases as witnesses, victims or defendants.

Journalists are liable to protect childrens rights; in his/her professional activity, given the highest priority to childrens interests, neither can journalists prepare nor publish articles or reports regarding children that may be harmful to them. Journalist must not interview, as well as photograph, a youth under the age of 16 on issues related to the welfare of the given or any other youth without the consent of the parents or the guardian.

Journalists should not interview or photograph children under the age of 15 on matters involving the childs family without the consent of a parent or other adult responsible for the child.

Newspapers and periodicals shall not, under any circumstances, identify children under the age of 15 who are involved in criminal cases as victims, witnesses or defendants.

The journalist treats with special accuracy the information collected about children, making sure that publishing such information will not have negative consequences (fear, suffering etc.) on them.

The journalist protects the identity of children involved in events with negative connotation (accidents, crimes, family conflicts, suicides, violence and any kind of abuse etc.), including as witnesses. Audiovideo recordings and photographs must be changed in order to protect childrens identity. Exception are the situations in which the childrens identification is of public interest and those in which the journalist acts in the supreme interest of the child, with or without their parents' or guardians' agreement.

Research should be carried out and approaches made with sympathy and discretion in cases involving personal grief or shock, people who are not in full possession of their mental or physical powers, as well as children and juveniles. The limited willpower or the special situation of such people must not be exploited deliberately to gain information.

The media is obliged to comply with the principles of the UN Convention on the Rights of Children and to research with special care the information that effect childrens interests.

The media is obliged to exercise special sympathy when interviewing, photographing or filming children under the age of sixteen.

The journalist must not interview or photograph children under 16 years of age without agreement from the parents or legal guardians, unless that is in accordance to the children rights.

Reporting on children, it is considered good press conduct to assess the implications that media focusing could cause in each case. This also pertains when the person in charge or parent, has agreed to exposure. As a general rule the identity of children should not be disclosed in reports on family disputes or cases under consideration by the childcare authorities or by the courts.

Information on children. The Collegium strongly recommends that anyone planning to publish any information about children or teenagers should consult the provisions of special reference documents such as Guidelines and Principles for Reporting on Issues Involving Children (adopted at the Annual Congress of the International Federation of Journalists in Seoul in 2001) and the UNICEF Ethical Guidelines for Reporting on Children.

Particular care must be taken to prevent any further harm to children who are witnesses or victims of crime.

A journalist is forbidden from using inappropriate, disturbing, pornographic and other content that may have harmful effects on children.

A journalist is obliged to respect and protect the rights and dignity of children, victims of crimes, persons with disabilities and other vulnerable groups.

Juveniles, as a rule, may be interviewed only in the presence of, or with the consent of their parents or legal guardians.

A journalist is obliged to ensure that a child is not endangered or placed at risk due to the publication of their name, photograph or recording with their image, house, the community in which they live or recognisable surroundings.

All pupils should be free to complete their time at school without unnecessary intrusion.

They must not be approached or photographed at school without permission of the school authorities.

Children under 16 must not be interviewed or photographed on issues involving their own or another child's welfare unless a custodial parent or similarly responsible adult consents.

Children under 16 must not be paid for material involving their welfare, nor parents or guardians for material about their children or wards, unless it is clearly in the child's interest.

Editors must not use the fame, notoriety or position of a parent or guardian as sole justification for publishing details of a child's private life.

The press must not, even if legally free to do so, identify children under 16 who are victims or witnesses in cases involving sex offences. In any press report of a case involving a sexual offence against a child

Care must be taken that nothing in the report implies the relationship between the accused and the child.

Particular regard should be paid to the potentially vulnerable position of children under the age of 18 who witness, or are victims of, crime. This should not restrict the right to report legal proceedings.

Except where there is an exceptional public interest, publishers must only interview, photograph, or otherwise record or publish the words, actions or images of a child under the age of 16 years with the consent of the child or a responsible adult and where this is not detrimental to the safety and wellbeing of the child. While a child should have every opportunity to express his or her wishes, journalists have a responsibility to consider carefully the age and capacity of the child to consent. Unless there is a detriment to the safety and wellbeing of a child, this provision does not apply to images of general scenes.

Except where there is an exceptional public interest, publishers must not identify a child under the age of 16 years without the consent of the child or a responsible adult unless this is relevant to the story and not detrimental to the safety and wellbeing of the child.

Publishers must give reasonable consideration to the request of a person who, when under the age of 16 years, was identified in their publication and now wishes the online version of the relevant article(s) to be anonymised.

Health reporting

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Reports on medical matters should not be of an unnecessarily sensationalist nature since they might lead to unfounded hopes or fears on the part of some readers. Research findings that are still at an early stage should not be portrayed as if they were conclusive or almost conclusive.

Depicting the minor nThe journalist who depicts a minor recognizably is bound in principle to ask the permission of the minor himself, and the parents, guardian or a third party who is entrusted with care and responsibility for the minor occasionally and temporarily. nPermission is not necessary for: n- General images in public places; - Everyday, non-controversial subjects; - Depictions distributed by official bodies; - When there is a considerable public interest that overrides the interests of the minor. nFor events that are accessible to the press, or where the press is invited, the implicit permission of those present is assumed. When a minor or whoever is responsible for him at that time voices objections to recognizable images, the journalist takes this into account. nThe journalist always considers whether or not it is advisable to make the minor unrecognizable. If he makes the images unrecognizable, he does so efficiently.

A journalist protects the rights of the invalid, avoiding sensational publication of news on medical arguments that can bring fear and groundless hopes. a) he does not spread news that is not confirmed by important scientific sources b) he does not quote the name of commercial drugs and products in order to favour a consumer product. c) he spreads in timely fashion the commercial names of pharmaceutical products that are withdrawn or suspended from circulation because they damage peoples health.

Check and substantiate information concerning sensitive areas of health, where misleading information and sensational coverage can provoke unjustified confusion in public opinion;

Particular care should be taken when informing about new methods of treatment that have not yet been fully tested and are only experimental in nature; fortune-telling and horoscopes cannot be presented as reliable information or indicators.

Reports of alleged successes or failures of medical or pharmaceutical research in the fight against serious illnesses call for circumspection and a sense of responsibility. Thus, neither text nor presentation should include anything that might raise unfounded hopes of a cure in the near future among ill readers and their dependants if this does not conform to the actual state of medical research. Conversely, critical or even one-sided reports on hotly-debated opinions should not make seriously-ill persons feel unsure and thus raise doubts about the possible success of therapeutic measures.

When reporting on the activities of para-doctors and self-proclaimed healers, a reporter must express a special dose of reasonable doubt and restraint.

In the reports on a spread of contagious and other diseases, a reporter must keep in mind that only a competent state authority is entitled to declare an epidemic.

Interviewees are coauthor of publication

Journalists should not create events themselves

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Journalists do not abuse their position and refrain from inciting incidents with the intention of creating news.

A journalist can never use economic or financial information that he knows to his personal benefit, nor can he disturb the state of the stock market, spreading news and events that are to his own advantage.

Letting source check their statements

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The journalist renders the interviewee's words based on the accurate message of the interviewee, which does not necessarily mean a verbatim presentation. The journalist may only provide an opportunity to check the accuracy of the interview, but this does not allow any substantial posterior modification.

Good press conduct requires clarification of the terms on which an interview is being carried out. This also pertains to adjacent research. Any agreement regarding quote check should be made in advance of the interview, and it should be made clear what the agreement includes and what deadlines apply. The editors decide for themselves what should finally be published.

Offering material to other media outlets for money

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If the journalist wants to publish the same or similar article in multiple media, he or she must alert all media. This also applies to cases where two journalists from two different media work on an interview together and they publish it in own media under own name without mentioning the colleagues name.

If the journalists and producers of public information offer the same copyright work to several producers and/or communicators of public information, they must warn the related parties about this.

If the journalist offers his journalistic product to more than one media outlet, he must notify the respective outlets about it.

Right of reply

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Journalists must hear those who are disqualified as a result of a publication, even if their role is marginal. Those who are accused must be given ample opportunity to respond to the accusations, preferably in the same publication. Note that hearing both sides does not relieve journalists from their duty to report as truthfully as possible.

The principle of hearing both sides does not apply to publications which seem to contain a personal opinion (e.g. columns, reviews and opinion contributions) and reports of a factual nature, such as reports of public meetings.

The journalist offers the other party the option of a fair hearing when his reporting makes serious accusations that may damage the honour and reputation of that party.

When the journalist himself goes public with such accusations, he contacts the person involved before the publication or broadcast and offers the opportunity to react. nThis is also advisable when he interviews someone who makes strong accusations or allegations. If in such cases there are good reasons not to allow for a reaction, or if it is not possible in practise, he contacts the person concerned afterwards. nThe journalist gives the person concerned a reasonable space of time to react. nA hearing does not free the journalist from his task to report the facts as correctly as possible and to be critical as to his sources.

Opportunities for reply must be given to the person about whom the media outlet intends to publish substantive and new information, but this does not mean an obligation to cite any concerns verbatim, or to present it in its full extent.

In reporting on a controversy we shall seek to ensure that the parties concerned have an opportunity to state their position.

Individuals subjected to serious accusations should be offered an opportunity for immediate rebuttal in the same edition or programme.

In order to harmonise the application and exercise of this right in the member states of the Council of Europe, we must implement Resolution (74) 26 on the right of reply _ Position of the individual in relation to the press, adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 2 July 1974, and also the relevant provisions of the European Convention on Transfrontier Television.

In addition, without the need for the persons concerned to go to court, the journalist shall provide natural or legal persons with the appropriate opportunity to counter inaccuracies in a manner similar to that indicated in the preceding paragraph.

If the intention is to present information about the activities of a clearly identifiable person, company or organisation in a manner that would present them in a very negative light, the object of the criticism must be granted the right of reply on the issue in question.

If it is not possible to simultaneously hear the views of the parties involved, it may be necessary to give the party who has received the very negative publicity the opportunity to be heard afterwards. If this is not done, good journalistic practice calls for the publication of the comment of the criticised party.

A right of reply is an intervention that should be published as soon as possible without any irrelevant additions.

Conventional cultural critique, political, economic or societal evaluation or similar expression of opinion do not, however, warrant a right to reply.

If the reply is not fit for publication as such, changes should be discussed with the writer. Even if an agreement cannot be reached, it is advisable to publish the essential contents in an objective manner.

Space should be made available as soon as possible for responses from persons or institutions which have been made the objects of attacks.

Information which may be prejudicial or insulting or detract from the respect in which individuals should be held shall be very closely examined before publication, primarily by submission to the person concerned. Submission should be made so as to give the person concerned a reasonable time to reply.

Attacks and replies should, where this is reasonable, be published together and in the same way. This particularly applies to insulting or prejudicial statements.

When a journalist makes a charge against people, he does not spread news damaging a personÂ’s reputation or dignity without giving the opportunity of reply to the person concerned. Should this be impossible (because the person is impossible to find or he doesnÂ’t want to reply) he has to inform the readers and the public of this fact. In any case, before publishing a piece of news concerning the investigationsÂ’ warning by a judge, he has to establish whether the charged person is aware of it.

Redress without delay, with appropriate presentation and suitable emphasis, inaccurate information and false allegations which are an affront to the honour and reputation of citizens and people, and print or present the opposite view without, necessarily, a rejoinder that would place such journalist in a privileged position vis-à-vis the injured party.

Anyone wishing to rebut a statement shall, if this is legitimate, be given the opportunity to do so.

Offer persons, who are criticized in a factual report, the opportunity to reply instantly to the criticism. Aim at presenting the views of all parties involved. Bear in mind that the sole objective of filing complaints of various kinds with various bodies may be to cause harm to an individual.

When publishing information that contains serious accusations, a journalist shall generally obtain a response from the persons concerned and put this response in the same article or, if delayed, obtain a response as soon as possible. The same must also be done when summarising serious accusations from other media or archives. If the journalist could not obtain a response, this lack of response shall be explained to the public.

The right to reply is granted when the request is considered justified and reasonable.

The information and statements which, after being released, would prove false or incorrect, will be corrected spontaneously, without any restriction prejudice to the legal provisions on the right of reply.

The person who is criticised in a negative manner must always be given the opportunity to explain, correct or deny the information. If this is impossible, or if the person refuses to use such an opportunity, this must be stated in the same work.

If incorrect or substantially incomplete information, or information that otherwise violates the provisions of this Code, has been published in a newspaper, radio or television program or electronic publication, anyone who is directly or indirectly materially or potentially harmed by the publication of this information, has the right to rectification. The views of journalists and those of others passed on in a journalistic report are not subject to the right of correction.

The Media give a fair opportunity of reply, in the appropriate case, to those affected and particularly when they have been attacked. This opportunity will be given not so long after the time of publication, that the right of reply shall have no meaning.

The principle of "presenting all sides" may not apply in publications representing personal opinions (editorials, opinion pieces) as well as reports of a factual nature, such as reporting on public meetings or events.

Criticized parties shall have the right to respond to accusations, whenever possible in the same publication. Journalists shall make every effort to contact all sides and gather all relevant opinions. Mere contacts with both sides do not "release" a journalist from the obligation to present both sides of a story, and to report as truthfully as possible.

A criticized party shall always have the right of response.

If the reply is not fit for publication as such, changes to it should be discussed with the writer. If he or she cannot be contacted within a reasonable time, the reply may be published in amended form. However, its essential contents must not be changed.

To be ready to meet with persons or representatives of organizations who feel offended or defamed by a certain publication, and provide an opportunity of response for all those against who criticism and accusations have been made in the publications;

The right to reply shall be extended to relevant persons if the editor determines that such a step contributes to accuracy and impartiality.

If at all possible, the opportunity for an immediate response shall be made available in the same edition of the publication as the one containing the accusation and/or incorrect information, not exceeding the originally published article in length.

It is the obligation of journalists, editors and newspapers to publish reactions and/or rebuttal when media present inaccurate information about an individual or organization.

The right of reply shall be extended to relevant persons if the publication concerned determines that fairness and impartiality merit such a step. There shall be an opportunity for immediate response with the same newspaper.

The journalist should obtain and present the opinion of all parties relevant to the subject. The journalist must prove the multitude of opinions, even though he disagrees with them.

The journalist respects the principle that any person subject to negative criticism is entitled to a reply to specify the inaccurate information or deny the information. The right of reply is secured only if the person concerned makes references to concrete facts in the journalistic product, the reply has a reasonable size, does not make allegations against a third party, and is worded in decent terms.

The reply is published as soon as possible and in conditions similar to those in which the journalistic product to which it refers was published.

If the possibility of securing the right of reply is missing or if the person concerned renounces the reply, the journalist announces about it.

Those who have been subjected to strong accusations shall, if possible, have the opportunity to simultaneous reply as regards factual information. Debates, criticism and dissemination of news must not be hampered by parties being unwilling to make comments or take part in the debate.

Those who have been the subject of an attack shall have the chance to reply at the earliest opportunity, unless the attack and criticism are part of a running exchange of views. Any reply should be of reasonable length, be pertinent to the matter and seemly in its form. The reply can be refused if the party in question has rejected, without an objective reason, an offer of presenting a contemporaneous rejoinder on the same issue. Replies and contributions to the debate should not be accompanied by polemic editorial comment.

Respect to society and their own profession means that journalists should respect the right of people to reply.

The press organs respect the right to reply and denounce regarding the wrong publications.

A journalist nurtures the culture and ethics of the public word, respects the right to reply, apology and correction, and is obliged to publish a corresponding correction promptly.

A fair opportunity to reply to significant inaccuracies should be given, when reasonably called for.

Stolen information

This principle was found in:

Journalists do not steal information, nor will they pay for stolen information.

Vulnerable people and sensitive topics

This principle was found in:

In the event of accidents and natural disasters, the Press must bear in mind that emergency services for the victims and those in danger have priority over the public right to information.

When conducting research among people requiring protection, particular restraint is called for. This applies especially to people who are not in full possession of their mental or physical powers or who have been exposed to an extremely emotional situation, as well as to children and juveniles.

In reports on countries where opposition to the government can mean danger to life and limb, the Press must always consider whether, by publishing names or photographs, those involved may be identified and persecuted. Furthermore, the publication of details concerning escapees and their escape may result in relatives and friends who are still in the escapees homelands being endangered, or in still-existing escape-routes being closed.

The Press will refrain from vituperating against religious, philosophical or moral convictions.

When placing pictorial representations of acts of violence and accidents on front pages, the Press shall respect the possible effects on children and young people.

Sympathy and discretion must be shown at all times in seeking information in situations of personal grief or shock. In publishing such information, the feelings of grieving families should be taken into account. This should not be interpreted as restricting the right to report judicial proceedings.

Journalists shall avoid intrusion into the pain of persons and the dissemination of information and images offensive to human dignity except where relevant to the public interest.

Journalists shall pay particular attention to the rights of persons unfamiliar with the media and persons in fragile situations such as minors or victims of violence, accidents, attacks, etc., as well as their relatives.

The journalist may not abuse his position, especially in regard to persons in a vulnerable situation such as minors, victims of crime, of disasters and accidents and those closest to them.

The journalist must be prudent when dealing with persons in a vulnerable situation, such as minors, victims of crime, disasters and accidents and those closest to them.

The journalist should respect the suffering of victims and of their relatives. He must not behave inappropriately in his acquisition of the facts.

The journalist must respect the right to privacy and must not probe further than public interest requires. The journalist must be prudent when dealing with persons in a vulnerable situation, such as minors, victims of crime, disasters and accidents and those closest to them.

The journalist reports on mourning ceremonies with respect and takes the wishes of those involved into consideration.

The journalist proceeds by paying attention to every case when the actor is, for some reason, not in the position to represent his or her own interests fully (minors, the imprisoned, persons with disabilities, foreigners residing in Hungary, etc.).

It must be taken into account that easily recognizable brutal or sexual content may be disturbing or shocking for young or otherwise sensitive audiences, but it also may not be easily categorized. Accordingly, the rules described above concern content which offends, humiliates, or evokes extreme fear.

The journalist will respect privacy. He/she shall respect the dignity of the persons named and/or represented and inform the interviewee whether the conversation and other material is intended for publication. He/she shall show particular consideration to inexperienced and vulnerable interviewees.

Persons whose life is in jeopardy shall not be identified in media reports if such identification is likely to expose them to even greater danger.

Any disparagement or derision of religious teachings or recognized churches and religious communities liable to give justified offence shall be inadmissible.

We shall not add to the distress of people affected by tragedy or crime and shall report such matters with sympathy and constraint.

We shall respect the wish of people to grieve in private.

We shall treat with caution the identification of victims and witnesses of crime, especially in cases involving sexual assault, unless the respective victims and witnesses give consent to being identified.

It is not recommended to emphasise nationality, race, religious or political persuasion and gender, unless it has news value.

Information and speculation about an individual's mental or physical health shall not be disseminated unless the individual is willing or the information is in the public interest.

In news coverage of matters involving aspects of pain or distress for the persons concerned, the journalist shall avoid gratuitous intrusion and unnecessary speculation about their feelings and circumstances.

People should be treated with respect and dignity, particularly the most vulnerable ones. Unnecessary interference and speculations about their feelings and circumstances should be avoided. Harming unjustifiably the dignity of individuals through words or pictures, even beyond their death, disobey the journalistic ethics.

Discretion must always be exercised when reporting on occurrences of illnesses or deaths or on victims of accidents or crimes.

In particular, consideration should be shown for people who cannot be expected to know the consequences of the information and statements they give.

A journalist should care never to take advantage of the emotions and feelings of other people, of their ignorance or their failing power of judgement.

Special regard should be paid to children and other persons who cannot be expected to realise the effects of their statements or other involvement. Parental consent should be obtained before the publication of interviews or the like when indicated by the nature of the subject and the minor's age.

At the collection or publication of information, the confidence, feelings, ignorance, lack of experience or lack of self-control shoud not be abused.

A journalist respects all principles confirmed in the ONU Convention dated 1989 on the right of children and their rules undersigned by the 'Treviso Ethic Code' (Carta di Treviso) to protect children, their character and their personality, both as an active protagonist and as a victim of a common-law offence and particularly: a) a journalist doesn't publish a name or any other element that can lead to the identification of people involved in the daily episodes or events; b) he has to avoid eventual instrumentalizations by all adults that bring to represent and make exclusively his own interest; c) however, he values if the spread of the news concerning children brings effectively to the interest of the minor himself.

A journalist protects the rights and dignity of people with mental or physical handicap in analogy with what is confirmed by the Treviso Ethic Code (Carta di treviso) about children.

A journalist protects the rights of the invalid,

A journalist pledges to use maximum respect towards subjects of daily life that for social, economical or cultural reasons can be regarded as minor instruments of self protection.

Respect the protection of minors and individuals with special needs and serious health problems, as such is provided for by international conventions;

Treat citizens with discretion and sensibility, when they are in situations of grief, mental shock and pain, as well as those who have manifest mental health problems, avoiding to draw attention to their personal particularity.

Consideration must be exercised to not offend people with physical or mental disabilities, the old and the sick, and those who are helpless in life.

People who are not experienced in communication with journalists, are unaware of the consequences of their actions or find themselves in a particularly difficult life situation, especially victims or witnesses of crimes, accidents or other events that may cause to a person emotional stress, the journalist approaches them with increased sensitivity and responsibility.

The journalist must be particularly considerate when mentioning names or publishing photographs and recordings of persons involved in accidents, and offenders or victims.

A journalist must show special consideration when publishing photographs or recordings, collecting information, and reporting about children and minors, persons with developmental, physical, and mental disabilities, and members of other vulnerable groups.

The identities of victims of accidents, disasters, crime, and especially sexual assault should not be disclosed unless the victims have given their consent, or when a major public interest prevails. This also applies to vulnerable persons such as the sick, disabled, refugees, etc.

When publishing any information provided by a person affected by shock or who is in a helpless position, journalists, producers and the communicators of public information must make sure that the publication thereof shall not violate the said person's rights, and must try to foresee any potential adverse consequences for that person.

Journalists, producers and the communicators of public information must not abuse the images and stories about any catastrophes, accidents, death, attempts to commit suicide, injured persons, violence, aggression or animal cruelty which could hurt the feelings of the persons depicted or their relatives, as well as affecting the sensitivity of the users of information. Avoiding all unreasonable accusations, irony, sarcasm or elements of bullying is also necessary when informing the public about any events of such a nature, and warnings must be published and the information must be marked appropriately, thus enabling sensitive users of the information to avoid such information.

Publishing information about a person who is in an affected state, as well as filmed or photographed images containing a person who is in affected state or who is dying, is forbidden.

Journalists, producers and the communicators of public information must not abuse a person's weaknesses or immaturity, or a failure to understand their rights and freedoms, nor shall they induce any persons to perform humiliating actions or deeds, or depict them in situations that offend human dignity.

Show the indicated sensitivity in matters that concern national security and are particularly careful in presenting issues such as violence, crime, sexual offences, human grief and death, as well as information or pictures that are hurtful or could cause panic, horror, or revulsion, especially to children.

In cases involving mourning, grief or shock, an approach characterised by discretion and sympathy to the utmost degree is necessary, as well as avoidance of any act that may increase human pain.

The media should refrain from publishingbroadcasting pictures of people in conditions of mourning, grief or shock and in those cases that publication or broadcasting of such pictures is justified, they should deal with such cases with special care.

Media shall exercise particular care in dealing with sources who are members of vulnerable groups, such as children and young people, victims of violence or minorities.

Media should carefully consider whether to publish facts about family scandals and historical crimes committed by individuals who have served their sentence.

A journalist shall respect all principles confirmed in International Conventions on the Rights of the Child and Albanian legislation on child protection and persons with limited abilities.

A journalist protects the rights and dignity of children and people with limited abilities, including their right to be heard.

To be tactful when collecting information, broadcasting video or audio materials, publishing interviews or photos of people with severe health issues, persons who committedattempted suicide or suffered tragedy and sorrow;

To be careful when disseminating information about terrorist acts, to rule out content and reports that may instill sympathy towards terrorists, to treat witnesses of events as sources of information delicately, and avoid disclosing the identity of relatives or friends of hostages and possible victims without their consent.

The reporting of war, acts of terrorism, accidents and catastrophes by means of text, image and sound should respect the victims' su?ering and the feelings of their loved ones.

Treatment of stories involving personal tragedy shall be handled sensitively, and the affected individuals shall be approached with sympathy and discretion.

The journalist does not provide to the public morbid details of crimes, accidents or natural disasters, or details of suicidal techniques. The same rules apply to visual items (photographs, videos).

The journalist treats with special accuracy the information collected about crimes, natural disasters, accidents and other similar cases in which someone is harmed in any way, each time making sure that publishing such information shall not cause more suffering to those harmed or not guilty for what has happened.

The journalist treats with special accuracy the information collected from persons in shock or from helpless persons, making sure that the publishing of the information will not harm the rights of such persons, and shall try to anticipate the eventual negative effects on them.

The journalist does not take advantage of persons' vulnerability or their lack of knowledge of their rights and freedoms, or encourage them to resort to humiliating actions and that harm human dignity.

A journalist is obliged to protect integrity of adolescent persons, different and disabled persons.

Research should be carried out and approaches made with sympathy and discretion in cases involving personal grief or shock, people who are not in full possession of their mental or physical powers, as well as children and juveniles. The limited willpower or the special situation of such people must not be exploited deliberately to gain information.

The journalist is obliged to respect the personal pain and grief.

Proceed tactfully in journalistic research. In particular show consideration for people who cannot be expected to be aware of the effect that their statements may have. Never abuse the emotions or feelings of other people, their ignorance or their lack of judgment. Remember that people in shock or grief are more vulnerable than others.

Respect for human dignity also means that a journalist is capable of moral self-restraint, follows the professional prudence principle and understands that it is unacceptable to use a sensational approach when interviewing people who are in a state of grief or shock in order to report armed conflicts, catastrophes and natural disasters, disease or death.

Situations of grief and shock. A journalist may not present to the public any shocking details of crimes, accidents, natural disasters or the details and circumstances of ones disease, dying or death. Any exceptions made for the situations of intense interest must be clearly and professionally substantiated. The same rules apply to visual content (photographs and videos).

Individuals in a situation of personal grief or shock should be treated with empathy and respect. If published, information received from such persons can cause them even more suffering.

Victims and suspects are often not aware of the power of the media. A journalist is obliged to take that into consideration, and not to abuse the ignorance of their collocutors.

A journalist is obliged to respect and protect the rights and dignity of children, victims of crimes, persons with disabilities and other vulnerable groups.

A journalist must never abuse the emotions of other people, their ignorance or lack of judgement. Guidelines: y Sources of information with which journalists converse are not always aware of the power of the media and the consequences that their statements may have on them personally, as well as on people they are talking about. Conscious abuse is incompatible with journalism, as well as inattention whose possible consequence could be abuse of the collocutor.

In case of death of a public figure, the media must be particularly careful with the information which subsequently associates that person with an offense or discriminatory information. Even when it comes to information of public importance, a journalist must be aware that the deceased persons are legally released from further prosecution.

Journalists and editors should especially avoid speculations and transmitting insufficiently verifiable attitudes in reporting on accidents and tragedies which have resulted in deaths or when the financial and other interests of the citizens are severely affected.

When reporting on events involving personal pain and shock, a journalist is obliged to adapt their questions so that they reflect the spirit of compassion and discretion. Guidelines: y Photographers and cameramen are obliged to act with respect and compassion when taking pictures of victims of accidents and crimes.

In cases involving personal grief or shock, enquiries and approaches must be made with sympathy and discretion and publication handled sensitively. These provisions should not restrict the right to report legal proceedings.

Take all reasonable steps not to exacerbate grief or distress through intrusive newsgathering or reporting.

Juvenile criminals

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When reporting on investigations and criminal court proceedings against young persons and on their appearance in court, the Press must exercise especial restraint out of consideration for their future.

Every identification of a minor who has had measures imposed by a juvenile court, is legally forbidden and therefore punishable. It makes no difference whether it is about a youngster who has committed offences described as crimes or a youngster in a worrying environment

Underage victims, witnesses and other persons involved in a juridical context should, in principle, not be identified.

Reports about criminal offences or misconduct on the part of juveniles shall not render more difficult or completely prevent their eventual re-integration into society. In such cases, the individuals full name shall not be published.

The name, photograph or other identifying facts of a person convicted of a crime may be published, unless it is viewed as clearly excessive in terms of the position or action of that individual. The journalist must be particularly careful not to disclose the identity of a minor or person found to be criminally unaccountable.

The journalist has the responsibility to bear in mind the legitimate interest of the minor. The journalist shall protect the identity of minors involved in crimes, whether as victims or perpetrators, unless the public interest requires that they be identified in order to protect the best interests of the minor, or at the express request of the parents or legal representatives.

Journalists, producers and the communicators of public information must not publish the personal data of a minor person, which could be used to identify them, in connection to a criminal offence or any violations of law, excluding the cases when a minor person is hiding from the law enforcement authorities.

When reporting on juvenile crime and juvenile court proceedings, media shall exercise consideration for the future of the young people concerned.

When reporting on investigations and criminal court proceedings against young persons and on their appearance in court, the media must exercise especial restraint out of consideration for their future. This also applies to young victims of crimes.

iii) Editors should generally avoid naming children under the age of 18 after arrest for a criminal offence but before they appear in a youth court unless they can show that the individuals name is already in the public domain, or that the individual (or, if they are under 16, a custodial parent or similarly responsible adult) has given their consent. This does not restrict the right to name juveniles who appear in a crown court, or whose anonymity is lifted.

Publishers must not directly or indirectly identify persons under the age of 18 who are or have been involved in criminal or family proceedings, except as permitted by law.

Offensive content

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A journalist must avoid the improper or personally offensive presentation of information and facts.

In practicing his profession, the journalist should ensure a balance between the societys right to receive public interest information and the right of the media to present opinions that may shock, offend or bother someone.

People unfamiliar with the press

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Journalists shall pay particular attention to the rights of persons unfamiliar with the media and persons in fragile situations such as minors or victims of violence, accidents, attacks, etc., as well as their relatives.

Journalists may not take advantage of people lacking experience in relating to the media. The possible consequences of their statements shall be explained prior to the conversation.

In particular, consideration should be shown for people who cannot be expected to know the consequences of the information and statements they give.

Special regard should be paid to children and other persons who cannot be expected to realise the effects of their statements or other involvement. Parental consent should be obtained before the publication of interviews or the like when indicated by the nature of the subject and the minor's age.

People who are not experienced in communication with journalists, are unaware of the consequences of their actions or find themselves in a particularly difficult life situation, especially victims or witnesses of crimes, accidents or other events that may cause to a person emotional stress, the journalist approaches them with increased sensitivity and responsibility.

Journalists are supposed to inform people or information sources unfamiliar with the press that their comments may be published or disseminated and therefore brought to the attention of the public.

The press is committed to identifying individuals with sources information and inform, in any given situation, of its intention to communicate to the public the information gathered. This article is intended to alert the people unaccustomed to contact with the press. Individuals must be aware that they are testimonies to a journalist can find their impact to a wide audience.

Media shall not distort or misuse statements made in a specific context. In particular consideration should be shown towards people who cannot be expected to be aware of the effect that their statements may have.

Not to abuse the credulity of persons who do not have experience of interaction with media and journalists;

A journalist must never abuse the emotions of other people, their ignorance or lack of judgement. Guidelines: y Sources of information with which journalists converse are not always aware of the power of the media and the consequences that their statements may have on them personally, as well as on people they are talking about. Conscious abuse is incompatible with journalism, as well as inattention whose possible consequence could be abuse of the collocutor.

People with intellectual disabilities

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Journalists take into account the particular vulnerability of certain groups, such as children (minors) and people with intellectual disabilities.

A journalist must show special consideration when publishing photographs or recordings, collecting information, and reporting about children and minors, persons with developmental, physical, and mental disabilities, and members of other vulnerable groups.

The journalist must not interview or photograph children under 16 years of age without agreement from the parents or legal guardians, unless that is in accordance to the children rights. The same refers to people with special needs, who are not able to decide rationally.

Reporting on crime

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The Press shall only publish names, photographs and other information enabling the identification of suspects or perpetrators if the legitimate interest of the public outweighs the interests worthy of protection of the persons involved in the individual case. Factors that are to be taken into account in particular are: the intensity of the suspicion, the seriousness of the allegation, the state of proceedings, the suspect's or perpetrator's degree of fame, the suspect's or perpetrator's earlier behaviour and the intensity with which he/she seeks publicity.

there is a connection between a famous person's position and the crime he/she is accused of or if the crime the person is accused of is contrary to his/her public image;

If the Press has reported on the unconfirmed conviction of a person, it should also report an ensuing acquittal or a marked lessening of charges if the legitimate interests of the person affected do not dictate to the contrary. This recommendation also applies to the dropping of an investigation.

Publications on serious offences must omit any details of the offence if they are expected to add suffering to the victim or his or her immediate family and if they are not needed to demonstrate the nature and gravity of the offence or the consequences thereof.

Journalists must prevent information or images from being published as a result of which suspects and convicted persons can be easily identified and traced by the public at large. Journalists are not obliged to observe this rule if the name forms a vital part of the report, if omission of the name on account of the general reputation of the person involved does not serve any purpose, if omission of the name can cause confusion with others who can be expected to be harmed as a result of that, if the name is mentioned within the framework of issuing appeals or if the person involved goes public him or herself.

The journalist must respect the right to privacy and must not probe further than public interest requires. The journalist must be prudent when dealing with persons in a vulnerable situation, such as minors, victims of crime, disasters and accidents and those closest to them.

Identification of suspects and the condemned

Does not confuse his role with that of policeman or judge.

When covering crime, court cases and accidents, the journalist shall consider whether the identification of the parties involved is necessary and what suffering it may cause to them. Victims and juvenile offenders shall not be identified as a general rule.

The name, photograph or other identifying facts of a person convicted of a crime may be published, unless it is viewed as clearly excessive in terms of the position or action of that individual. The journalist must be particularly careful not to disclose the identity of a minor or person found to be criminally unaccountable.

Information about the convicted, charged or suspected individual should not be published if it may reveal the identity of the victim of a highly sensitive crime.

In case of the accused's acquittal a journalist has always to give an appropriate journalistic emphasis to the piece of news, also giving a referral to all news and articles previously published.

A journalist has to observe the professional secrecy, when it is required by the fiduciary character of his sources. In any other cases a journalist has to respect the transparency of the sources.

When disclosing crimes and persons suspected of having committed crimes, extreme caution should be exercised to avoid descriptions that allow for initiation of anti-social acts, and not presume guilt until the court issues a final judgment.

The press agrees not admit nor glorify crime, terrorism and other acts of cruelty or violence.

Publishing any data collected during a pre-trial investigation is forbidden, excluding the cases where it is in the public interest to publish such information or when this public data is already publicly availablepublished.

Publishing the personal data a person who is suspected of a crime, which could be used to identify that person, is forbidden.

Journalists, producers and the communicators of public information must not remind the public about the suspicions of a previous crime which were raised but were not confirmed, except if publishing such information is in the public interest. In such a case, it must be noted that the suspicions were not confirmed.

Journalists, producers and the communicators of public information must not remind the public about any previous criminal offences, which are not attributed to extremely grave or grave criminal offences, for which the person has already served the sentence and the conviction has been expunged. This rule is not applicable if the person has continued doing the job related to the criminal offences committed by them, or if the said person is a candidate for a significant position in the society.

Media shall report with care and sensitivity issues of crime and violence and shall treat with caution the identification of victims and witnesses of crime. In cases involving sexual assault, victims shall not be identified unless they willingly give consent.

When reporting crimes, it is not permissible to refer to the suspects religious, ethnic or other minority membership unless this information can be justified as being relevant to the audiences understanding of the incident. In particular, it must be borne in mind that such references could stir up prejudices against groups in need of protection.

In order to collect information in any form, a journalist should use professionally honorable and legally allowed methods. Any violation of this rule is allowed only in cases when those methods are not sufficient, and information that is to be obtained of the great importance for the public.

Journalists should normally use open methods of gathering information in which they clearly identify themselves as such. Untrue statements by a journalist about his/her identity and their publication when doing research work are irreconcilable with the standing and function of the media.

The media should generally avoid identifying relatives or friends convicted or accused of crime unless the reference to them is necessary for the full, fair and accurate reporting of the crime or the legal proceedings.

Reports on investigations and court cases serve to inform the public in a careful way about crimes, their prosecution and court judgment.

In particular avoid presumption of guilt in crime and court reporting. Make it evident that the question of guilt, whether relating to somebody under suspicion, reported, accused or charged, has not been decided until the sentence has legal efficacy. It is a part of good press conduct to report the final result of court proceedings, which have been reported earlier.

Noting the presumption of innocence principle as one of the key civilisational values, the Collegium would like to reiterate the well-known provision of the Declaration of the Court Reporter Guild: investigative journalism cannot be prevented by the mere legal concept of presumption of innocence. Supporting this idea, the Collegium wishes to reiterate the special responsibility a journalist has when they interview a person being publicly accused by the journalist (editorial team). Unless specific consent has been obtained, journalists should avoid mentioning the identity of family members and friends of suspects or convicts when making their accusations.

Particular care must be taken to prevent any further harm to children who are witnesses or victims of crime.

In reporting crimes, national, racial, religious, ideological and political affiliation, as well as sexual orientation, social and marital status of suspects or victims, are mentioned only in case when the orientation, citizenship or status are directly related to the type and nature of a committed criminal offense.

When reporting on accidents and crimes, publishing the names and photographs of victims and perpetrators that clearly identify them is not permitted. Also, publishing any information which could indirectly reveal the identity of either victim, or the perpetrator, before the relevant authority officially announces is not allowed.

Relatives or friends of persons convicted or accused of crime should not generally be identified without their consent, unless they are genuinely relevant to the story.

i) Payment or offers of payment for stories, pictures or information, which seek to exploit a particular crime or to glorify or glamorise crime in general, must not be made directly or via agents to convicted or confessed criminals or to their associates – who may include family, friends and colleagues.

Editors invoking the public interest to justify payment or offers would need to demonstrate that there was good reason to believe the public interest would be served. If, despite payment, no public interest emerged, then the material should not be published.

Family drama

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In the articles on sexual abuses and family tragedies, a journalist shall not disclose the identities of victims and their family members, and the identities of offenders shall not be disclosed when that action would disclose the identities of the victims. The same shall apply for articles on other criminal offences when minors are included in them. Identities can be disclosed provided there is consent from the adult victims.

Memoirs of criminals

Police and magistrates

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A journalist has to proceed with great caution in publishing names or elements that can lead to the identification of members of the legal team or of the police, when they can provoke the risk of endangerment for themselves or their families.

Presumption of innocence

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The publication of so-called criminals' memoirs infringes journalistic principles if crimes are justified or qualified with hindsight, the victims are inappropriately affected, and a detailed description of the crime merely satisfies the demand for sensation.

The press shall strive to ensure that court reports (including the use of images) are fair and accurate, are not prejudicial to the right to a fair trial and that the presumption of innocence is respected.

The journalist takes the uncertainty of the juridical process into account, including the possible innocence of the suspect. He ensures this is clear in his reporting.

A journalist has to respect the presumption of innocence until a case is finished.

The journalist strictly respects the principles of presumption of innocence.

Respects people's dignity and the presumption of innocence

We respect the assumption of innocence and will not describe a person as a criminal prior to the personals conviction.

The media shall not treat any individual as a criminal prior to a court sentence to that effect.

In journalism, information and opinions must respect the presumption of innocence, in particular in cases which are still sub judice, and must refrain from making judgments.

The journalist must embrace the principle that every person is innocent until proven otherwise and avoid as far as possible any harmful consequences resulting from the fulfilment of his or her journalistic duties. Such criteria are particularly enforceable if the information deals with matters submitted to the Courts of Law.

Any person accused of or charged for a crime has the right to the presumption of innocence in the information and opinions related to the investigations, lawsuits or criminal proceedings. The respect and protection of this right is valid from the beginning of the police interventions until guilt has been proved in a process celebrated with the necessary guarantees. The journalists should prevent prejudices and should not submit suspects to parallel trials.

A journalist always respects the right of presumption of innocence.

In all the process and investigations, a journalist has always to remember that every person charged of an offence is innocent until the final judgement. He must not spread news in order to introduce him as guilty person when he has not been judged guilty in such a process.

In case of the accused's acquittal a journalist has always to give an appropriate journalistic emphasis to the piece of news, also giving a referral to all news and articles previously published.

Respect the presumption of innocence and not assume the outcome of judicial decisions;

When disclosing crimes and persons suspected of having committed crimes, extreme caution should be exercised to avoid descriptions that allow for initiation of anti-social acts, and not presume guilt until the court issues a final judgment.

Remember that, in the eyes of the law, a person suspected of an offence is always presumed innocent until proven guilty. The outcome of a legal case should be published if it has been previously reported on.

The journalist respects the presumption of innocence including persons suspected of committing a crime, accused of committing a crime or charged with a crime. The names of people suspected of criminal activity are disclosed only if releasing their names is an important public interest.

A journalist shall take into account that no one is guilty until guilt has been proven by a competent authority's decision. If the decision is not final, this shall be noted by the journalist.

The journalist has the responsibility to respect the presumption of innocence.

The press is committed to respect the presumption of innocence and avoid putting publicly as a person guilty of facts before confirmation official.

The Universal Charter of Human Rights because of the presumption of innocence a fundamental right: "Everyone charged with a crime is presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial at which all the guarantees necessary for his defense was insured. "The press adheres to this principle without restrictions. The law specifies the obligations of the media in the context of legal proceedings in Articles 12 and 13.

However, sometimes the press of business taking place outside seize judicial proceedings, but within the public interest to know. In this case, the press provides with all the usual recautions to respect the presumption of innocence.

In the absence of legal proceedings, the journalists will be cautious before revealing the identity of suspects, unless the suspicions are the result of a rigorous journalistic work to bring to light socially reprehensible acts.

The distinction between legal and business procedures that take place outside the court to explain the wording: "and avoid publicly present a person guilty of such facts before any official confirmation. "Instead of usual formulation " before any final judgment."

Journalists, producers and the communicators of public information must respect the presumption of innocence. A person may only be found guilty by a valid ruling or the judgment of a court.

If publishing the surname of a person who is suspected of a crime, or is an accused or a defendant, is in the public interest but this fact of a crime is not proven later, the journalists, producers and communicators of public information must immediately inform the society that the said person has been found to be not guilty.

Publishing the personal data of a witness to any criminal offence which could be used to identify that person is forbidden.

The reports and articles on court proceedings should respect the constitutional principle of the presumption of innocence of the accused and the dignity, integrity and feelings of all parties in the dispute.

Functionaries of the Media fully respect the principle that a person suspected or accused of having committed a crime is innocent until the contrary is proven in accordance with the law, and consequently avoid publishing anything which may lead to conclusions regarding either the guilt or innocence of suspects or accused or tends to smear their reputation or publicly humiliate them.

Journalists will always respect presumption of innocence and will refrain from describing someone as a criminal prior to final court conviction.

To respect the presumption of innocence: when publishing the names of crime suspects before the trial, to consider the public need for doing so - strike a balance between the presumption of innocence, the right of crime suspects to fair trial, and the right of the public to be informed.

Court procedures coverage must be impartial. A journalist cannot call a person criminal before a conformable court verdict is announced.

Persons Charged With Criminal Offenses Journalists shall not treat any individual as a criminal prior to a court sentence to that effect.

Journalists have the duty not to prejudge the guilt of an accused person.

The journalist respects the presumption of innocence and considers any person innocent until a final and irrevocable court sentence is issued against them.

When reporting on criminal investigations or cases examined in the court of law, journalists shall use precise language in order not to harm the trial participants.

When reporting on investigation and court procedures, a journalist has to respect the assumption that everyone is innocent until is proved differently and should by no means pre-adjudicate the outcome of a court procedure.

A person is presumed innocent until proven guilty by a court, even if he or she has confessed. Even in cases where guilt is obvious to the public, an accused person cannot be portrayed as guilty within the meaning of a court judgment until a verdict has been handed down.

The principle of presumption of innocence, reporting for all involved parties in the legal dispute without suggesting verdict, will be applied when reporting on court procedures.

In particular avoid presumption of guilt in crime and court reporting. Make it evident that the question of guilt, whether relating to somebody under suspicion, reported, accused or charged, has not been decided until the sentence has legal efficacy. It is a part of good press conduct to report the final result of court proceedings, which have been reported earlier.

No one shall be declared 'guilty' unless it is determined by the judicial system.

Acts considered as crime according to the law cannot be attributed to anyone unless there are reasonable reasons to believe that it is true.

A journalist is obliged to respect the presumption of innocence and must not proclaim anyone guilty before the Courts verdict.

The media are obliged to respect the right to the presumption of innocence and to protect the privacy and identity of the suspect or the perpetrator, even in the case of admission of guilt.

Reporting on criminal offenses, during the conversation with potential witnesses, a journalist must be careful not to disclose the identity of a victim or the identity and the right to the presumption of innocence of a suspect.

Reporting on Court and legal proceedings

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Sympathy and discretion must be shown at all times in seeking information in situations of personal grief or shock. In publishing such information, the feelings of grieving families should be taken into account. This should not be interpreted as restricting the right to report judicial proceedings.

The press shall strive to ensure that court reports (including the use of images) are fair and accurate, are not prejudicial to the right to a fair trial and that the presumption of innocence is respected.

Adequate coverage shall be given to any important court decision or finding of another public authority regarding a subject on which the newspaper or magazine has reported or to any essential new findings concerning said subject that have emerged in some other way.

If we identify a person as being charged with a crime, we shall also make known the outcome of the trial.

When covering crime, court cases and accidents, the journalist shall consider whether the identification of the parties involved is necessary and what suffering it may cause to them. Victims and juvenile offenders shall not be identified as a general rule.

If the request for investigation, indictments or conviction has been a published news item, the matter should be followed to the end as is possible. During an ongoing trial, the journalist will not strive to affect the decisions of the court or present a premature position on the guilt of the subject in question.

A journalist must pay a special attention when reporting from the law courts. The question of guilt should only be settled when a duly enforceable verdict has been issued.

The general Press Ethical Rules mentioned under A and B shall also apply to court reporting.

The rules for court reporting shall also apply to the preliminary steps of a lawsuit or a trial, including the consideration of criminal cases by the police and the prosecution.

Court reporting should be objective. At any time during the preliminary stages and the hearing by the court, the journalist should aim at a qualitatively equal representation of the points of view of the parties (in criminal cases the points of view of the prosecution and the defence, respectively). Coverage of a criminal case should be followed up by an account of the conclusion of the case, whether this takes place in the form of a withdrawal of the charge, acquittal, or conviction.

Family circumstances, race, ethnicity, nationality, creed, sexual orientation or membership of organisations should only be mentioned when relevant to the case.

As long as a criminal case has not been finally decided or the charge withdrawn, no information may be published which may obstruct the clearing up of the case, nor may pronouncements to the effect that a suspect or accused is guilty be published. When reporting on a criminal case, it shall clearly appear whether a suspect or an accused has declared himself or herself guilty or not guilty.

To the greatest possible extent, a clear objective line shall be followed in deciding which cases are to be covered, and in which instances the names of the persons involved are to be given. The name or any other identification of a suspect or an accused should be omitted if no public interest calls for the publication of the name.

A suspect, an accused, or a convicted person should be spared from having attention called to an earlier conviction if it is without importance in relation to the offence concerning which he/she is now suspected, charged, or convicted. Previous criminal charges against a named person should not, as a rule, be mentioned in connection with other news.