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Excerpts are underlined in the text and highlighted when activated. Each of them relates to an ethical principle that is displayed on click, as well as the list of journalistic codes of ethics that also refer to this same principle.

Luxembourg

Code of Ethics

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Adopted by the plenary meeting of the Press Council of Luxembourg on 28 March 2006.

Preliminary explanations


A code of ethics, an example of a Charter, must be easily readable for media professionals as well as for the public. However, it must be comprehensive enough to cover the various aspects on the media, with the aim of providing the Press Council of instruments necessary to assume a co-or even self-regulating.

The code must be comprehensive enough to serve as a guideline to the press Luxembourg without its readability is affected by the volume and complexity of articles.

This code must also be scalable. This evolution is achieved by adding directives that come at progressively, complete. The Press Council in Plenary issuing these guidelines, or on its own initiative or on a proposal the Complaints Commission. These guidelines assist in the interpretation and the application of various provisions of the Code.

In Part I of the Code, the Press Council sets standards and rules professional ethics.

In Part II, it provides recommendations and useful guidance in the Code.

In Part III, the Press Council provides clause by clause comments.

Preamble


Freedom of the press is the main safeguard freedom of expression, without that the protection of other fundamental civil liberties cannot be ensured, while considering that the exercise of these freedoms include duties and responsibilities.

Ethical principle:

Journalism in society > Protecting and promoting freedom of speech-press > Freedom of press

Freedom of press

This principle was also found in:


The press should have the right to collect and publish unhindered information and comments to ensure the formation of public opinion.

Ethical principle:

Rights of journalism > Freedom of the press

Freedom of the press

This principle was also found in:


With reference to Article 24 of the Luxembourg Constitution as amended guaranteeing freedom of the press, in the light of Article 10 of the Convention for the Protection of Human

Ethical principle:

Journalism in society > Protecting and promoting freedom of speech-press > Freedom of information

Freedom of information

This principle was also found in:


Rights and Fundamental Freedoms signed in Rome on 4 November 1950 and approved by the Law of 29 August 1953 which guarantees everyone freedom expression which includes freedom to hold opinions and freedom to receive or impart information and ideas without interference there may be by public authority and regardless of frontiers, in view of Article I of the Act of 8 June 2004 on the freedom of expression in the media ensuring freedom of expression in the media, pursuant to Article 23 of the law establishing the Press Council and the loading to develop and publish a code of ethics designed to define the rights and duties of journalists and editors Press Council plenary meeting of 28 March 2006 adopted this Code of Ethics.

Ethical principle:

Journalism in society > Protecting and promoting freedom of speech-press > Freedom of information

Freedom of information

This principle was also found in:

Part I.


Chapter I. Scope and purpose of the Code of Ethics


Art. 1 Scope


The provisions of the Code of Conduct apply to all players in the press Luxembourg and all the media covered by the law.

The recipients of the Code of Ethics include individuals or entities that are covered by the Act of 8 June 2004 on the freedom of expression in the media, following the law, under the terms editor, journalist or employee.

The editors are committed to know and comply with this Code by their employees.

Recipients Media Code include the press, media audiovisual and electronic.

Art. 2 Subject


The Code of Conduct sets the rules inherent in the exercise of freedom of expression in the media.

Ethical principle:

Journalism in society > Protecting and promoting freedom of speech-press > Freedom of speech

Freedom of speech

This principle was also found in:


It allows the Press Council to exercise its mission of self-regulation and information conferred upon it by law.

Ethical principle:

Journalism in society > Protecting and promoting freedom of speech-press > Freedom of speech

Freedom of speech

This principle was also found in:

II. - Rights and duties of the press in general


Art. 3 From freedom of expression


Journalists and editors are committed to defending the freedom of information and it involves rights, freedom of comment and criticism, independence and the dignity of the profession.

Ethical principle:

Journalism in society > Protecting and promoting freedom of speech-press > Freedom of speech

Freedom of speech

This principle was also found in:

Art. 4 From the accuracy and truthfulness


a) The press is committed to the utmost rigor in the search for information and to verify the truth. In case of doubt on the veracity of the facts or information that the public has a predominant interest in knowing the press to present day with reserves necessary.

Ethical principle:

Reporting facts as they are > Truthfulness > Truth

Truth

This principle was also found in:


b) The information and statements which, after being released, would prove false or incorrect, will be corrected spontaneously, without any restriction prejudice to the legal provisions on the right of reply.

Ethical principle:

Being fair > Right of reply

Right of reply

This principle was also found in:

Art. 5 Respect for others


a) The press shall avoid and oppose any discrimination for reasons sex, race, nationality, language, religion, ideology, ethnicity, culture, class or beliefs, while ensuring respect for human fundamentals of the human person.

Ethical principle:

Being fair > Discrimination and racism

Discrimination and racism

This principle was also found in:


b) The press agrees not admit nor glorify crime, terrorism and other acts of cruelty or violence.

Ethical principle:

Being fair > Vulnerable people and sensitive topics > Reporting on crime

Reporting on crime

This principle was also found in:


c) The press is committed to respect and uphold the human dignity of each individual. It is committed to respect the right to privacy of the individual. However, in exceptional cases the public interest and freedom of the press may override the right to privacy.

Ethical principle:

Being fair > Dignity > Privacy (and the public interest)

Privacy (and the public interest)

This principle was also found in:


d) The press agrees to give the utmost attention to the protection of minors. It is committed to avoid intrusion may harm their development without prejudice to the legal provisions in force.

Ethical principle:

Being fair > Honoring agreements > Children

Children

This principle was also found in:


e) The press is committed to respect the presumption of innocence and avoid putting publicly as a person guilty of facts before confirmation official.

Ethical principle:

Being fair > Vulnerable people and sensitive topics > Presumption of innocence

Presumption of innocence

This principle was also found in:


f) Press is committed to respecting copyright as defined in the amended Act of 18 April 2001 on copyright, neighboring rights and databases.

Ethical principle:

Reporting facts as they are > Re-using material > Plagiarism and copyright

Plagiarism and copyright

This principle was also found in:

Art. 6 From independence


a) The journalist implies the rejection of any venality in the exercise of profession and the refusal to report his professional influence to other for the information and the formation of public opinion.

Ethical principle:

Media independence > Resisting pressures in general

Resisting pressures in general

This principle was also found in:


b) Journalists and publishers agree to accept any benefit or no promise that could limit their professional independence or expressing their own opinion.

Ethical principle:

Media independence > Independence regarding personal interests > Accepting gifts

Accepting gifts

This principle was also found in:


c) The press is careful not to give in to pressure or promises direct or indirect third party in connection with the presentation of information, except to state its reserves.

Ethical principle:

Media independence > Resisting pressures in general

Resisting pressures in general

This principle was also found in:


d) Journalists may not be compelled to engage in practices unethical and ethics of their profession.

Ethical principle:

Rights of journalism > Refusing unethical assignments > Refuse assignments that violate laws and ethics

Refuse assignments that violate laws and ethics

This principle was also found in:


e) Journalists can not be forced to sign one of their contributions would have been substantially modified.

Ethical principle:

Rights of journalism > Refusing unethical assignments > Refuse to be named as author

Refuse to be named as author

This principle was also found in:

Chapter III. Journalistic Practices


Art. 7 for obtaining information


a) The press agrees to observe professional secrecy which implies the right to remain silent sources of information, as defined in the law. She has the right to refuse disclose in the course of an administrative or judicial procedure information identifying a source. It is committed to ensuring that confidential sources of information will without the explicit permission of the informants.

Ethical principle:

Being fair > Confidentiality

Confidentiality

This principle was also found in:


b) Journalists are supposed to inform people or information sources unfamiliar with the press that their comments may be published or disseminated and therefore brought to the attention of the public.

Ethical principle:

Being fair > Vulnerable people and sensitive topics > People unfamiliar with the press

People unfamiliar with the press

This principle was also found in:


c) Journalists and editors are committed to avoid work anonymously or any use of other illegal and reprehensible methods to obtain information, sounds, images or documents. They undertake not to practice investigation under cover when the scale of the information justifies it and information can not be obtained otherwise.

Ethical principle:

Being fair > Fairness in gathering information

Fairness in gathering information

This principle was also found in:

Art. 8 In the reporting


a) The profession is committed to carefully decide what is the opinion personal analysis and factual information so as not to generate confusion in the public.

Ethical principle:

Reporting facts as they are > Opinions and op-eds > Separation between facts and opinions or analysis

Separation between facts and opinions or analysis

This principle was also found in:
Journalists undertake to respect equally the facts, even in journalistic genres where the expression of opinions is wide instead.

Ethical principle:

Reporting facts as they are > Opinions and op-eds > Opinions should be based on facts

Opinions should be based on facts

This principle was also found in:


b) press releases and other official communications are to identify clearly as such to avoid confusion with journalistic work. Journalists undertake not to sign their names as the contributions that have been they conceived.

Ethical principle:

Media independence > Press releases

Press releases

This principle was also found in:


c) The press agrees to commit no plagiarism and cite authors or sources which it reproduces information

Ethical principle:

Reporting facts as they are > Re-using material > Plagiarism and copyright

Plagiarism and copyright

This principle was also found in:
.

Art. 9 From the picture, sound and audiovisual

Ethical principle:

Being fair > Dignity

Dignity

This principle was also found in:


a) Journalists and editors undertake to respect the right of each image individual.

b) The image (photo, graphics, film footage, …) should not distort reality. The pictures were not taken in the direct context of the event are scoring clearly visible as illustration or image respectively archives. The photomontages are visibly marked as such.

c) When editing audio and video, journalists undertake to ensure not significantly alter the information gathered, nor to distort the information out of its original context.

Ethical principle:

Reporting facts as they are > Audiovisual material > Manipulation of audio material

Manipulation of audio material

This principle was also found in:


d) The press agrees to prefer the representation of reality for reconstitution by various devices. Reconstructions of events and staging can nevertheless be used in journalism to illustrate and support a story, subject to identify an appropriate and careful not to mislead the public.

Ethical principle:

Reporting facts as they are > Re-enactments or staging

Re-enactments or staging

This principle was also found in:

Art. 10 Electronic Media and the Internet


This Code of Ethics applies to the information provided by media professionals on the Internet or by other electronic means existing or future. Before creating hyperlinks, the press is obliged to check whether the referred pages contain illegal content. In the latter case, it undertakes to refrain from any electronic link.

Ethical principle:

Internet-specific guidelines > Hyperlinks

Hyperlinks

This principle was also found in:

Art. 11 From the business and financial information


a) Advertising must be made so that the public may be confused with editorial content. The commercials and advertisements that may be misinterpreted by a moderately attentive and informed public as journalistic information must be clearly identified to avoid confusion.

Ethical principle:

Media independence > Independence from commercial interests > Separation of paid and editorial content

Separation of paid and editorial content

This principle was also found in:


b) Journalists undertake not sign their name promotional items. The Press is committed to maintaining objectivity in presentation and communication information with respect to commercial businesses, products or services.

Ethical principle:

Media independence > Independence from commercial interests > Creating promotional publications or work as PR person

Creating promotional publications or work as PR person

This principle was also found in:


c) press product or communicating investment recommendations in the obligation to provide only recommendations compliant the relevant law and identify them. It should inform the public about the identity of the person making the recommendation and agrees to notify the public that it is not responsible for failure of a strategy investment.

Ethical principle:

Media independence > Conflicts of interest > Market information

Market information

This principle was also found in:


d) Journalists and editors agree not to use their own benefit financial information they receive in advance of general publication. They undertake not to pass this information to interested persons before the general publication. They undertake not to communicate about stock prices where they themselves themselves or their loved ones, a major personal interest. They undertake not to sell or buy, either directly or through an intermediary, the holdings of shares on the stock exchange or any other financial instruments which they recently or they rely on write in the near future writing.

Art. 12 From the treatment of personal data


Press is committed to respecting the right of access to personal information each individual, this especially in the case of personal data as defined in the law on data protection. The right of access to personal information shall not, however, never undermine the protection of journalistic sources.

Chapter IV. Miscellaneous Provisions


Art. 13 Advertising Code of Ethics


This Code of Conduct is made available to any person interested can apply directly to the Secretariat of the Press Council. The guidelines adopted in plenary by the Press Council will be and integrated over time to measure. The Code is subject to a specific publication and published on the website of the Press Council.

Ethical principle:

Journalism in society > Accountability > Workings and procedures of the Media Council

Workings and procedures of the Media Council

This principle was also found in:


It will be the same in the updated Code of Ethics.

Art. 14 Entry into force


The Code comes into force on the day following its approval by the plenary of the Press Council. It will be the same in the updated Code of Ethics.

The Code of Ethics as adopted by the plenary session of 4 December 1995 is repealed.

Part II


Recommendations and guidelines of the Press Council


The law authorizes the Press Council to issue recommendations or guidelines to the attention of journalists and publishers. These guidelines of the Press Council serve to clarify if necessary respectively the interpretation and application of the various sections of the Code of Ethics. These guidelines from the plenary meetings of the Press Council allow this last to ensure the development of the Code, taking into account developments in the legislative, societal and technological.

Ad Art. 5 Respect for others


S.5 a) "The press shall avoid and oppose any discrimination on grounds of sex, race, nationality, language, religion, ideology, ethnicity, culture, class or beliefs, while ensuring respect for human fundamentals of the human person. "

Directive - The press gives national or ethnic racial, religious a person when this is necessary for understand the facts or where there is a direct link to the information.

Ethical principle:

Being fair > Discrimination and racism

Discrimination and racism

This principle was also found in:
(Adopted in plenary meeting of 28 March 2006

Ad Art. 7 for obtaining information


S.7 a) "The press agrees to observe professional secrecy which implies the right to protect their sources of information, as defined in the law. She has the right to refuse disclose in the course of an administrative or judicial procedure information identifying a source. "

Directive - In case of search in a newspaper company or audiovisual making Following a commission or inquiry, the Chairman, or the lack of it a vice-presidents or his duly mandated to assist with the search mission to ensure that the provisions guaranteeing freedom of expression in the media are met. (Adopted in plenary meeting of 28 March 2006)

Ethical principle:

Being fair > Dignity > Personal information

Personal information

This principle was also found in:


S.7 c) "Journalists and publishers agree to avoid working under anonymity or use of other illegal and reprehensible methods information, sounds, images or documents. They are committed to engage in the investigation on condition that when the extent of information and warrants that information can not be obtained otherwise."

Directive - In some cases journalists can use illegal methods to obtain the information they seek: false identity, microphones and cameras hidden inaccuracies in the intentions of the story, shadowing, infiltration. The use of such means must remain exceptional. Journalists will use them when the following conditions are met:

Ethical principle:

Being fair > Fairness in gathering information

Fairness in gathering information

This principle was also found in:


* The information sought is a public interest, for example in when it comes to updating socially reprehensible actions;

Ethical principle:

Being fair > Fairness in gathering information

Fairness in gathering information

This principle was also found in:


* Information can not reasonably be obtained or verified by other means, or they have been used without success;

Ethical principle:

Being fair > Fairness in gathering information

Fairness in gathering information

This principle was also found in:


* Interest to the public outweigh the disadvantages that can be caused to individuals.

Ethical principle:

Being fair > Fairness in gathering information

Fairness in gathering information

This principle was also found in:


The public will be informed of the use of these means. (Adopted in plenary meeting of 28 March 2006)

Ethical principle:

Being fair > Fairness in gathering information

Fairness in gathering information

This principle was also found in:

Ad Art. 9 From the picture, sound and audiovisual

Ethical principle:

Being fair > Dignity

Dignity

This principle was also found in:


Art.9 d) "The press is committed to prefer the representation of reality in its reconstitution by various devices. Reconstructions of events and housing scene can still be used in journalism to illustrate and support a report, subject to adequately identify and care not mislead the public."

Ethical principle:

Reporting facts as they are > Re-enactments or staging

Re-enactments or staging

This principle was also found in:


Directive - Before resorting to staging, journalists assess if it is the best or only way to understand the situation to the public. The public must be informed clearly that it is a reconstruction or a staging. The reconstruction will be limited to reproduce as faithfully as possible the facts, opinions, emotions surrounding the event recreated. When these stagings are designed to give the impression of an event spontaneous, journalists must inform the public of the nature of organized Event. (Adopted in plenary meeting of 28 March 2006)

Ad Art. 12 From the treatment of personal data


"The press is committed to respecting the right of access to personal information each individual, this especially in the case of personal data as defined in the law on data protection. The right of access to personal information shall not, however, never undermine the protection of journalistic sources.

Ethical principle:

Being fair > Dignity > Personal information

Personal information

This principle was also found in:
"

Directive - It is given to the Complaints Commission of the Press Council's mission deal with any complaints against a journalist or editor protection of data. Possible intervention of the National Commission for the Protection of data will only alternative in case the decision of theComplaints Commission does not give satisfaction to the applicant. In all cases, the right of access to information can be exercised in the presence of the Chairman of the Press Council or his representative. (Adopted in plenary meeting of 28 March 2006)

The right of access to the data can never be the origin of data. He does not know either be done in order to compromise dissemination of a publication. (Adopted in plenary meeting of 28 March 2006)

Ethical principle:

Being fair > Dignity > Personal information

Personal information

This principle was also found in:

Part III


Comments article by article


It is recalled that thereafter any reference to the law of 8 June 2004 on the freedom of expression in the media is designated by the terms "law" provided that there is no ambiguity.

Ad Preamble


Freedom of expression has its roots in all statements and conventions relating to human rights. This freedom must be exercised without restraint, without pressure and without censorship, is one of the essential pillars of any democratic society. Article 24 of the Luxembourg Constitution states: "Freedom to manifest opinions by word of any material, and freedom of the press guarantees, except for the punishment of offenses committed in the exercise of these freedoms. - Censorship can never be established." The Preamble sets out the national and international legal standards Luxembourg for the existence of this Code of Ethics and conferring its normative force.

Ad Art. 1 Scope


This is a prerequisite for the implementation of the Code of Ethics provided. The definition of a collaborator, editor and journalist is that of the law. "The employee is any person, journalist or not, who with or for account an editor involved in the collection, analysis, commentary and treatment Editorial information. The editor is any natural or legal person who, as principal or regular designs and structure a publication assumes editorship, decides to make available to the general public or categories of public through a medium and ordered to this end its propagation. The journalist is a person who engages principally paid work or exercises as a regular activity generating substantial income, it either as an employee or as an independent, with or on behalf of a editor and is in the collection, analysis, commentary and treatment Editorial information. Is treated as a journalist editor natural person who participates personally and regularly to their collection, analysis, commentary and the editorial processing of information."

Ad Art. 2 Subject


Freedom entails rights and obligations. The Press Council, in its mission to defend freedom of the press and that granted during the debates Parliamentarians on the Law of 8 June 2004 on the freedom of expression in the media and especially in the motion of 13 May 2004 by the Chamber of Deputies established with this Code of Ethics rules inherent in the operation the press and the exercise of freedom of expression in the media.

Ethical principle:

Journalism in society > Protecting and promoting freedom of speech-press > Freedom of speech

Freedom of speech

This principle was also found in:

Ad Art. 3 From freedom of expression


Section 6 of the Act establishes not only the right to information but also the right to communicate information, to comment and criticize. Freedom of the press is based on the social role assigned to the media and information professionals in a democratic society. This role is search, collect, process, review and disseminate unhindered information public interest necessary for the existence and maintenance of democratic life. The press freedom arises from fundamental freedoms of thought, speech, of expression and opinion recognized in various legal documents, the plan nationally and internationally.

Ethical principle:

Rights of journalism > Freedom of the press

Freedom of the press

This principle was also found in:


As an extension of the above freedoms, the right to information takes root in recognition of the legitimate interest of the public to be informed. It specifies the conditions for the exercise of a free press in a democratic society, and the prerogatives and responsibilities of those whose primary function is inform. The right to be informed includes the right of the media and journalists to seek and transmit information without hindrance or constraints, and the public's right to access freely.

For this purpose, it is necessary to recall the main principles set out in the Declaration Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the Convention of the Council of Europe. "All

Ethical principle:

Journalism in society > Protecting and promoting freedom of speech-press > Freedom of speech

Freedom of speech

This principle was also found in:
Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression, which includes the right not to freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart considerations impart information and ideas through any expression whatsoever. "(Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights)

"Everyone has the right to freedom of expression. This right includes freedom to hold opinions and freedom to receive and impart information and ideas there can be no interference by public authority and regardless of border. "(Article 10 of the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms of the Council of Europe)

Ad Art. 4 From the accuracy and truthfulness


a) monitoring the accuracy and veracity of the information is essential to maintaining high standards of professional press. However, when despite reasonable efforts, given the situation, the information remains doubtful, it must be allowed the press to impart information by hand his doubts. It is the commitment to publish only the information that sources are credible and score information from unreliable sources as such.

Ethical principle:

Reporting facts as they are > Accuracy

Accuracy

This principle was also found in:


b) Section 11 of the Act provides that any misrepresentation of fact contained in a publication must be corrected spontaneously when the inaccuracy on the presentation is concerned is established or when the employee concerned or the publisher had knowledge. The Code of Ethics adopted these considerations.

Ethical principle:

Reporting facts as they are > Correction of errors by media

Correction of errors by media

This principle was also found in:

Ad Art. 5 Respect for others


a) This article deals with direct discrimination. Remember about Article II-21 of the draft European Constitution Treaty says: "Is prohibited any discrimination based on sex, race, color, ethnic or social origin, genetic features, language, religion or belief, political or other opinion, membership of a national minority, property, birth, disability, age or sexual orientation.

Ethical principle:

Being fair > Discrimination and racism

Discrimination and racism

This principle was also found in:
"

There exist forms of communication, not directly incite discrimination or hatred, can help to create an atmosphere in public negative feelings towards a community. An example drawn from everyday practice is an indication of the color of skin a challenged whenever it is not white. It recommends that the press shows the racial, national or Ethnic a person when this information is necessary to understand the facts or where there is a direct link to the information. It is the same sex, language, culture, social class, disease, physical or mental disability or religious belief, political or ideological person.

Ethical principle:

Being fair > Discrimination and racism

Discrimination and racism

This principle was also found in:


b) The press agrees not to defend or glorify acts of violence, brutality or cruelty.

Ethical principle:

Being fair > Vulnerable people and sensitive topics > Violence and war

Violence and war

This principle was also found in:


c) Any person, whether public or not known, has a fundamental right to privacy, privacy, dignity and respect for the reputation. The public, its part, the right to be informed about what is in the public interest and the press has a duty the know. Whether in the collection, processing or dissemination of information, media and journalists should exercise caution, discernment and caution. They should worry about actually informing the public, and must be the necessary distinctions between what is public interest and what is the public curiosity. The law about the respect the privacy of the person in Articles 14 15 and a number of conditions that must be observed.

Ethical principle:

Being fair > Dignity

Dignity

This principle was also found in:


d) The legislature, in various related laws, grants special protection to minors, so as not to jeopardize their social development and family. Journalistic ethics also requires compliance

Ethical principle:

Being fair > Honoring agreements > Children

Children

This principle was also found in:
with specific tags in the collection, processing and dissemination of information on minors, specifically regarding their identification.

Ethical principle:

Being fair > Honoring agreements > Children

Children

This principle was also found in:


When the press considers it appropriate to inform the public about legal issues minors, it shall not publish any mention clean to allow identification, whether they are involved as accused, victims or witnesses of traumatic events.

Ethical principle:

Being fair > Honoring agreements > Children

Children

This principle was also found in:


Outside the judicial context, the media and journalists should also be guided in the exercise of their professional responsibilities by the principle of respect the anonymity of youth, including security and development could be compromised. Thus, the press should refrain from giving details that allow the identification of young stigmatized, whether as victims, third innocent or because they live in serious personal difficulties. The law in Articles 18 and 19 on certain provisions of the protection of minors.

Ethical principle:

Being fair > Honoring agreements > Children

Children

This principle was also found in:


e) The Universal Charter of Human Rights because of the presumption of innocence a fundamental right: "Everyone charged with a crime is presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial at which all the guarantees necessary for his defense was insured. "The press adheres to this principle without restrictions. The law specifies the obligations of the media in the context of legal proceedings in Articles 12 and 13.

Ethical principle:

Being fair > Vulnerable people and sensitive topics > Presumption of innocence

Presumption of innocence

This principle was also found in:


However, sometimes the press of business taking place outside seize judicial proceedings, but within the public interest to know. In this case, the press provides with all the usual recautions to respect the presumption of innocence.

Ethical principle:

Being fair > Vulnerable people and sensitive topics > Presumption of innocence

Presumption of innocence

This principle was also found in:


In the absence of legal proceedings, the journalists will be cautious before revealing the identity of suspects, unless the suspicions are the result of a rigorous journalistic work to bring to light socially reprehensible acts.

Ethical principle:

Being fair > Vulnerable people and sensitive topics > Presumption of innocence

Presumption of innocence

This principle was also found in:


The distinction between legal and business procedures that take place outside the court to explain the wording: "… and avoid publicly present a person guilty of such facts before any official confirmation. "Instead of usual formulation "… before any final judgment."

f) The information provided in the media is in the public domain. One can therefore be refer, in reporting the substance or quoted. In terms of information, the work of other media can be useful to journalists. However, the fact that information is disseminated in media does not justify If another media copy or reproduce impunity without mentioning source or without the permission of the author. Not only legislation concerning copyright, neighboring rights and databases that disapproves but it is also a matter of professional ethics.

Ethical principle:

Reporting facts as they are > Re-using material > Plagiarism and copyright

Plagiarism and copyright

This principle was also found in:

Ad Art. 6 From independence


Necessary to freedom of opinion and expression is provided independence the press. The last day with reasonable care to prevent itself anything that might call into question its independence. Paragraphs of this section dealing with different scenarios that could compromise their independence.

Ethical principle:

Media independence

Media independence

This principle was also found in:

Ad Art. 7 From secret sources and obtaining information


a) The law provides for the protection of sources in Article 7. However, some cases that have arisen since the entry into force show that protection remains fragile as those concerned did not yet have the experience and necessary routines. After meeting with the State Attorney, the Council of Press plans to instruct its chairman or the lack of it a vice-Presidents or his duly authorized representative with the mission to attend any searches to ensure, at any place, that the protection of journalists' sources is respected.

Ethical principle:

Being fair > Confidentiality

Confidentiality

This principle was also found in:


b) The press is committed to identifying individuals with sources information and inform, in any given situation, of its intention to communicate to the public the information gathered. This article is intended to alert the people unaccustomed to contact with the press. Individuals must be aware that they are testimonies to a journalist can find their impact to a wide audience.

Ethical principle:

Being fair > Vulnerable people and sensitive topics > People unfamiliar with the press

People unfamiliar with the press

This principle was also found in:


c) Some codes of conduct are limited to say the ban unfair use ie work under cover for information. If this rule is applicable in most of journalistic work, it can not however be absolute. The scandal of "Watergate," to take one example most spectacular in the history of journalism, would never come to the public knowledge without the use of non-conventional methods. But in many cases, these practices are necessary for many other subjects such as investigations in the consumer interest (test-purchases, eg). The chosen article thus serves to educate the journalist not to abuse these methods, while leaving him the right to the range of methods when interest public demands. Press inform the public use of these means in accordance with the principle of protection of sources and taking into account the interest of the public to be informed the status of the species.

Ad Art. 8 In the reporting


a) Generally, the rule adopted by this article is the principle of separation of facts and comment. As Luxembourg, the press release is an opinion, limiting the simple recommendation to separate facts and comments do not seem enough. This leads to the conclusion that physical separation between information and comment is necessary, that is to say, should be published two articles distinct.

Ethical principle:

Reporting facts as they are > Opinions and op-eds > Separation between facts and opinions or analysis

Separation between facts and opinions or analysis

This principle was also found in:


However, it should be qualified. When the public can distinguish even within a single article, what are the facts on the one hand, and what opinions journalist and the other comments, the rule is supposed respected. In many cases, the formulation of a title, the use of an adjective is already the expression of an opinion, an evaluation of the journalist. Use these means to attract the attention of the public may be in conflict with the rule. And up to the journalist to be aware of.

Ethical principle:

Reporting facts as they are > Opinions and op-eds > Separation between facts and opinions or analysis

Separation between facts and opinions or analysis

This principle was also found in:


b) This provision is justified by the fact that more formal sources of companies bring news services providing media press "ready". So the press is it called to be particularly vigilant to enable the public to distinguish between work journalistic and press others.

Ethical principle:

Reporting facts as they are > Opinions and op-eds > Separation between facts and opinions or analysis

Separation between facts and opinions or analysis

This principle was also found in: